P R 348S Study Guide - Final Guide: Web 2.0, Freemium, Sports Radio

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Published on 24 May 2020
Public Relations
P R 348S
Major Concepts Guide - From Canvas
1. Athlete Driven Media
a. Athlete Directed Media: A specific message or piece of content that an athlete
directly shares with an audience, regardless of platform
b. Three types of athlete directed media
i. Traditional
1. Ex. ESPN writes up spring training story featuring athlete interview
ii. Owned, earned
1. Ex. Personal websites content platforms
iii. New, public use platforms
1. Ex. Twitter, Instagram, etc
c. Waves of change
i. Wave 1 (Radio, TV, Print - Aggregated Content)
1. Appointment TV and radio, with newspapers providing post-game
and pregame coverage
a. Shoulder programming supported
b. Access often still controlled by Teams/Leagues
c. Almost 100% of content was live game + highlights
2. Glossy print media - featuring a narrative perspective + powerful
ii. Wave 2 (Owned websites - Fragmentation/Aggregated Content, which
was then segmented)
1. Digital, leagues and teams began with web 1.0 and 2.0 distribution
platforms (ex. nhl.com) on early web and then social sites
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a. MLBAM: MLB centralized ticketing, owned media. Players
only allowed to share licensed content
iii. Wave 3 (complete fragmentation, but segmentation is increasingly
1. Social and DTC (direct to consumer) content created by athletes +
“independent” brokers
2. Broadcast Blackouts
a. Sports Blackout: when a sports event that was scheduled to be televised is not
aired in a particular media market(s). This blackout may prevent transmission of
sports programming on local broadcast networks and/or non-broadcast platforms
such as cable and satellite television
b. Reasons for blackouts:
i. Originally, to protect a sports event’s live gate
ii. Later, to protect broadcast ad sales revenues
3. Broadcast Rights Fees
a. Broadcast Rights Fee: a fee received by a team or league from a broadcast
b. Sports Broadcasting Act (SBA) of 1961
i. Exempted pro sports leagues from federal antitrust law so that leagues
could pool the individual teams’ rights to sell league-wide broadcast rights
packages to television networks
ii. Part of that antitrust exemption gives leagues the right to NOT broadcast
individual team games
4. Bundling Programming
a. Media companies bundle channels and refuse to sell them individually to pay tv
providers (ex. MTV, MTV2, and VH1)
5. Cable TV
a. Advent and adoption
i. Physically laying cable wires provided a method for delivering TV signals
to areas which had difficulty receiving broadcast antenna signals
ii. Good for geographically remote areas where signals wouldn’t reach and
for densely populated urban areas
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iii. Basic Cable Package
1. It is NOT FREE for consumers like stand-alone OTA stations
2. All local OTA broadcast stations (ABC, CBS, ABC, Fox + UHF
stations) are included, plus a series of not-for-profit stations
iv. Expanded Basic Cable Package
1. Includes all of basic cable components plus a few dozen other
familiar networks (food network, regional sports, etc.)
v. Premium Cable Package
1. Networks that individual consumers order and pay for as
additional programming in their cable package
2. Most often they are sports (ex. NBA TV) or entertainment
networks (ex. HBO, ShowTime, Starz)
b. Tiered content pyramid
i. Tiers 1 and 2 represent the bulk of the sporting events that are popular on
a national level and are accessible with every carriage provider
ii. Tier 3 generally represents all the other sporting events. Tier 3 inventory
is generally football and basketball games that have only a regional
interest, as well as sports such as baseball, lacrosse, soccer and others
1. Did not usually generate a lot of revenue
c. Revenue model
6. Carriage
a. The concept
i. Carriage: the process by which a broadcast network, Over-The-Air or
Cable-specific networks are retransmitted on a cable or satellite operator
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