Psychology 301: Spring 2014
Review Sheet for Exam 2
1. What is maturation?
genetic instructions, that causes various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence
2. In Piaget’s theory, what are the stages of cognitive development?
a. 1) Sensory motor Intelligence (0-2 months)
b. 2) Preoperational Period (2-6 Months)
c. 3) Concrete Operational Period (6-11 months)
d. 4) Formal Operational Period (11 & up)
3. According to Piaget, what is a schema?
general concepts, involving theories about models of the way the world works
4. What is assimilation? When does it occur?
Child first try to integrate new information with existing schemas
5. What is accommodation? When does it occur?
If schemas can’t absorb the new information then the existing schemas are altered to fit
the new information
6. How does the child acquire information about the world during the sensorimotor
Actions and senses – movements
7. What kind of cognitive abilities does the child acquire during the sensorimotor
Object permanence and stranger anxiety
8. What do the findings which show that babies have a basic understanding of
principles of physics and math mean for Piaget’s theory?
Stages aren’t definite, move on from one exactly to the next
9. What is object permanence? What kinds of things can a child do after acquiring
object permanence that s/he could not do before?
- Knowing an object is still there even when you cant see it
- Imaginary friends, pretend play
10. What do the findings that show that babies look longer at impossible figures than
possible figures indicate about Piaget’s view of infancy?
- Babies have an understanding for what is possible/not possible
- They are confused by impossible ones
11. What kind of cognitive abilities does the child acquire during the stage of
- Language development
- Become adept at using symbols - Role playing
12. What is conservation? What kinds of things can a child do after acquiring object
permanence that s/he could not do before?
the understanding that an object can retain a property under a variety of conditions.
A. Focus on operations rather that results
B. Transformation are reversible
C. Focus on more than one dimensions at a time
13. What is egocentrism? What kinds of things can a child do after acquiring object
permanence that s/he could not do before?
- child can only see the world from his/her point of view
- look for something that is missing rather than getting upset
14. What is theory of mind? What kinds of things can a child do after acquiring a
theory of mind (losing egocentrism) that s/he could not do before?
- the different understanding that other people have different ideas and understanding
- maturation, intelligence
15. How are the concepts of egocentrism and theory of mind related?
Once a person develops a theory of mind they are able to see things from others
perspectives better because they can be aware of when they are being selfish
16. What kind of cognitive abilities does the child acquire during the stage of concrete
1. Can think logically about concrete objects and events
2. Understands how actions can affect or transform concrete objects
3. Understand conversation
4. Has reversibility and transformation
17. What kind of cognitive abilities does the child acquire during the stage of formal
1. Reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking.
2. Can now use symbol and imagined realities to systematically reason understands
a. a. Formal logical properties
b. b. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
c. c. Difference between abstract and empirical truth
d. d. Can think about possibilities
3. Can make abstract moral judgments
5. Think about how ideals can be reached
6. More sophisticated thinking about self and others
e. Being able to understand that other person could have a different beliefs that their
18. In Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development, what causes the child’s mind to grow?
Interaction with the social, environmental and language, which provides high levels of
thinking and social mentoring
19. What is attachment? The bond that the child feels significant adults
20. What is imprinting?
When youngs see something and mimics everything It does thinking its its parenting
21. What is a critical period?
- The time in development when a specific type of learning can take place
- Before or after the critical period, the same learning is difficult or even impossible
- Learning English
22. What is a secure attachment? What factors contribute to forming a secure
i. Mom leaves, child distressed
ii. Mom returns, child Happy
A. Moms are warm and responsive
B. Sensitive to babies signals
C. Enjoy contact
23. What is an insecure attachment? What factors contribute to forming an insecure
i. Mom Leaves, Child distressed
ii. Mom returns, child distresse
A. Moms are impatient and frustrated
C. See child’s needs as interfering with plans
24. How is temperament connected to attachment?
Easy going temperament, securely attached
25. What are the effects of disrupted attachment?
- Upset, distress, difficulties eating and sleeping when removed from foster mothers at
young age, infants can recover at young age
- Sadness in adults after death or separation, emotional detachment, normal living
26. What are the characteristics of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive
- authoritarianhigh demand, low responsiveness, no explanations for demandingness or
allowance of input TOP DOWN
- Authoritativeallows input and offers explanations, high demandingness and responsiveness,
- Permissive no expectations, low demandingness, high responsiveness, few rules, children in
charge, BOTTOM UP
27. What are the consequences of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parents?
28. What are the three stages of moral development in Kohlberg’s theory? - preconventional (selfinterest reasons for acting) don't even think about stealing
- conventional (uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social
order) don't steal medicine for wife because you would go to jail, and
- post conventional (actions reflect belief in basic rights and selfdefined ethical
principles) steal medicine for wife because she will die without it
29. For each stage, what factors are used in making moral decisions?
Establishing community, Perception, Interpretation, Judgment, Motivation, Action, Reflection in action,
Reflection on action.
30. What is Haidt’s idea of moral intuition?
moral judgment is mostly based on automatic processes rather than on conscious reasoning
31. What are Erickson’s stages of psychosocial development?
a. 1) 8 stages, each involving a particular social challenge
b. 2) Meeting the challenge successfully, moves to the next stage
in a state of good emotional health
c. 3) Not successfully meeting the challenge leads to problems
which will effect the outcome of later stages
32. In each of Erickson’s stages, what is the challenge being dealt with? For each stage,
what is the outcome of successfully resolving that challenge and of not successfully
resolving the challenge?
- Social challenges
- Resolving challenge, next stage will be easy
- Not resolving challenge, encountering difficulty
33. What is the concept of emerging adulthood?
- bridging gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible
34. What factors contribute to happy and unhappy marriages?
- Love, commitment, work, support, honesty
1. What is the standard definition of personality in psychology?
Enduring patterns of thought, feelings and behavior
2. In terms of Freud’s theory, what is the nature of consciousness,
preconsciousness, and unconsciousness?
Consciousness: includes everything that we are aware of.
Preconsciousness: ordinary memory
Unconsciousness: reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of
our conscious awareness
3. In terms of Freud’s theory of dreaming, what the manifest and latent meanings
of a dream? The manifest content is the actual literal subject-matter of the dream, while the latent
content is the underlying meaning of these symbols. the latent content of a dream is
the hidden psychological meaning of the dream.
4. What are the three parts of the personality in terms of Freud’s theory?
ID, ego, superego
5. In Freud’s theory, what individual role does each part of the personality play?
the id (unconscious) is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary
component of personality. – pleasure
the ego(conscious,preconscious, and unconscious) develops from the id and ensures
that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world
The superego holds our sense of right (the ego ideal) and wrong (the conscience).
6. In Freud’s theory, how do the three components of the personality work
work together to create complex human behaviors
7. What are the pleasure and reality principles? Which component of the
personality operates according to each of these principles? Why?
- Impulses need to be fulfilled immediately
- the reality principle strives to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways
- ID, pleasure. Ego, reality.
8. In Freud’s theory, what is a defense mechanism?
When Ego resolves conflict between Id and Superego
9. What function do defense mechanisms play?
Help cope with anxiety, help us function normally,
10. What are the defense mechanisms of regression, reaction formation,
sublimation, projection, displacement, and rationalization?
- Regression is using past coping strategies
- Displacement involves taking out our frustrations, feelings, and impulses on people
or objects that are less threatening.
- Sublimation allows us to convert anger to a more acceptable form. Anger >
- Projection is taking your own unacceptable qualities/feelings and giving them to
- Rationalization is explaining unacceptable behavior/feeling in logical manner,
avoiding true reasons.
- Reaction formation, acting nice to someone you hate to hide true feelings
11. What is an inferiority complex?
Lack of self worth
12. What is Jung’s theory of the collective unconscious? Collective unconscious is dominated by archetypes [primitive (Basic) concept of
how we see the world ]
13. What are the Rorschach and TAT (thematic apperception test) projective
personality tests? What are they designed to measure? What is the primary
problem with using them for diagnosis?
individual offers responses to ambiguous scenes, words or images
These projective tests were intended to uncover such unconscious desires that are
hidden from conscious awareness.
Untrue answers, answers influenced by something, different interpretations, not
valid or reliable
14. What are the major criticisms of Freud’s personality theory?
Everything stems from sex
15. What is the modern conception of the unconscious mind?
a reservoir of repressed and mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and
16. What is the humanistic theory of personality?
emphasize a positive, optimistic view of human nature; goodness and potential
17. What are self-determination, self-actualization, and self-transcendence? What
role does each play in humanistic personality theory?
Self-Determination is realizing that you can determine your own future
Self-actualization is realizing your potential
Self-transcendence is realizing the meaning beyond yourself