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Notes for Exam 3 (got 92%)

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PSY 301
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Psychology 301: Fall 2012 Review Sheet: Exam 3 Chapter 14 1. How are psychological disorders defined? • Aconstellation of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that create distress, disability/ dysfunction, or danger • First step of disorder is diagnosis • Once you have label, almost impossible to get it out of your record • Don’t diagnose based on lifestyle choice, but lifestyle choice is destructive to life • Harmful dysfunction – key to diagnosis 2. How does the medical model approach psychological disorders? • Mental health movement; psychopathology needs to be diagnosed on basis of its symptoms & cured through therapy 3. How does the biopsychosocial model approach psychological disorders? • All behavior arises from nature & nurture • Assess genetic predispositions & physiological states, inner psychodynamics & social and cultural circumstances 4. What is DSM-IV? What is its greatest strength? What major criticism has been directed against it? • Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder = classification system that describes features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder (400) & how can be distinguished o Published byAPA, used in U.S. for almost all research oGreatest strength = allows diagnostic reliability oStrength: 1. Communicate with their cases 2. Comprehend underlying causes 3. Discern effective treatment o Criticism:  Large # of people diagnosed allows many to fall into category of disorder at some point  Labels can have life and influence of their own: media portrayals allow them to be subject of ridicule  first two editions were theoretical – hard to diagnose, too many disorders • Point prevalence = how many people were given disorder at particular point in time (ex: rate of PTSD was huge around 9/11 around eastern seaboard) • Lifetime prevalence = how many people in given population will have a given disorder at some point in life 5. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using diagnostic labels? • Advantages: oCan help predict future course oClassification creates order 1 • Disadvantages: oMajor cultural differences in prevalence rates & how symptoms are expressed oChanges over time in what is defined as a disorder oNormal behaviors differ by ref. group & situation oSome definitions are specific to a context (e.g. insanity: a legal, not psychosocial definition) 6. What is an anxiety disorder? • = feelings of excessive apprehension & anxiety 7. What are the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and phobias (specific and social)? How can you distinguish among them? • GAD = chronic excessive worry & at least 3 of following symptoms: oRestlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance 1. Lifetime prevalence about 6% 2. Twice as frequent in women 3. Occurs more in lower socioeconomic status groups • Panic disorder = sudden and untriggered occurrence of multiple psycho and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror; panic attacks o Lifetime prevalence: 5% women; 10% men o Agoraphobia can bring this out = extreme fear of venturing into public • Phobic disorders = marked, persistent and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities or situations o Specific phobia: involves irrational fear of particular thing that interferes with ability to function  Autonomic system kicked up; go to great lengths to avoid  Interferes with ordinary life  Anxiety is predisposed  “get back on the horse that threw you” need to face fear right away so problem doesn’t multiple and worsen o Social phobia = irrational fear or being publicly humiliated or embarrassed  Associated with eating disorders 8. What is OCD? What is an obsessive thought? What is a compulsive behavior? • OCD = recurrent obsessions & compulsions that cause severe illness and significantly interfere with an individual’s life oObsession = persistent irrational thoughts oCompulsion = intentional behaviors or mental acts performed in a stereotyped fashion in response to an obsession 1. Person experiences this as irresistible 2. Reduces anxiety from obsession 9. What is PTSD? What are the major symptoms? What are the related processes of survivor resilience and post-traumatic growth? • PTSD = if symptoms of acute stress disorder persist for more than a month after trauma 2 • Major symptoms: oRe-experiencing symptoms: nightmare, flashbacks 1. Flashbacks can be accurate, or composites, or involve imagine consequences oArousal symptoms: 1. Difficulties in concentration 2. Difficulties in falling asleep 3. Extreme responses to being startled; hyper-vigilance o Avoidance symptoms = active avoidance of people, places or objects linked to trauma • Other common symptoms: o Emotional numbness, loss in interest in things previously enjoyed, outbursts of anger, survivor guilt, hyper-vigilance, exaggerated startle response, autonomic activation to related stimuli • Effects are worse if person feels life is threatened, feels helpless • Symptoms can emerge only time after trauma • PTSD from wars and from other situations is different. From wars, it’s learning to live within context of a traumatic experience • Many more people experience trauma than develop PTSD o More severe trauma makes PTSD more likely o Better social system after trauma makes it less likely o Talking through experiences lessens recovery time 10. How does the learning perspective account for anxiety disorders? What are the roles of stimulus generalization and reinforcement? What is the role of observational learning? • Great comorbidity among anxiety disorders o More than 50% of people who have anxiety disorder will develop another • Suggests there are risk factors shared by these disorders o Risk factors specific to individual disorders 11. How does the biological perspective account for anxiety disorders? Why might some of these disorders be adaptive? What evidence is there for a genetic involvement? • Genetics: oConcordance rate much higher for identical than fraternal oMost significant genetic risk seems to be for OCD 1. Different forms of OCD seem to have different inheritance paths o PTSD: 1. 500 times more likely to develop if parent had it 2. Higher concordance rate for identical than fraternal w/ similar trauma 3. Greater similarity in symptoms for identical than fraternal • Brain dysfunctions: o Phobias: great activity in brain areas involved in fear learning 3 o PTSD: less brain activity in prefrontal regions associated w/ emotional regulation o Panic disorder: apparent instability in autonomic nervous system o OCD: overactivity in orbitofrontal cortex • Environmental o General:  Childhood abuse or neglect  Ahighly anxious parent  More stressful life experiences in childhood & adolescence o Specific:  Classical conditioning plays a major role in development of phobias & OCD  Panic: 80% have a negative life event corresponding to first attack  PTSD: major trauma • Personality factors: o PTSD:  Avoidant coping strategies  History of withdrawal, depression, or sense of being unable to cope o Panic: anxiety sensitivity o Social phobias: o Extreme childhood shyness o OCD: viewing a disturbing thought as moral equivalent of action 12. What is a mood disorder? What are the two major kinds of mood disorders? • Mood disorder = mental disorder that has mood disturbances as predominant feature • Major depressive = severely depressed mood that lasts 2 weeks + & is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness, lethargy 13. What is major depression? What are the symptoms of depression? • Major depressive = characterized by severely depressed mood that lasts 2 weeks + & accompanied by... • Symptoms: feelings of worthlessness & lack of pleasure, lethargy, sleep and appetite disturbances 14. What is bipolar disorder? What are the symptoms of bipolar disorder? • Bipolar = unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (
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