PHIL 1301 Study Guide - Summer 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - God, Plato, Epistemology

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30 Nov 2019
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Philosophy Intro
Theory: An explanation of a fact or phenomena.
-----> Explaining/Predicting (connects to facts)
Facts/Phenomena:
<----- Supporting/Argument (connects to the theory)
Web of Beliefs - we do what we do because of what we believe
- Beliefs affect actions, actions affect people so we want actions to be right
- The closer we get to the inner web, the harder it is to let it go
War of the Worlds
Islam - mathematics, microscopes, telescopes
Hubris
Theory of the 4 Humors
- Body naturally strives for balance - homeostasis
- The body is composed of 4 humors
- Blood
- Phlegm
- Yellow Bile
- Black Bile
- Sickness is the imbalance of the humors - trying to purge itself of fluids in order to return
to a balanced state
- - - - - -
God by definition is a perfect being
- Omnitemporal
- Omnipotent
- All powerful
Evidence for the existence of God:
- Cosmological argument
- Ontological argument
- Teleological (Design Argument)
- There are multiple design flaws
- But evolution builds on what came before → so the flaws are a cause of that
Eudamadia
Descarte - would support evolution
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Geocentrism
Heliocentrism
Aristotle - Substance -- means individual things, does not mean matter
- Individual things -- like a noun
- Ex: a person, a dog, a tree
Plato - Dualism - neoplatonists
- the self is composed of body (flesh, appetite, senses, emotions) and soul.
- Soul is more important because it’s eternal
- Body dies after lifetime
- So does the soul have a lifetime?
- Goal → the purification of the soul from the body -- separating the body and the soul after
death and go to the world of forms.
- Method
- Purify our soul by turning away from the body (appetites, senses, emotions and
soul) and live the life of intellect
- Life of Intellect
- Philosophy
- Mathematics
- The more you live the life of the body, your soul gets tied up with your
body -- you get reincarnated as an animal with primary impact in your life
Socrates -
- Dont know what he really thought
- Didnt write anything
- Charged for making the weak argument seem stronger
Epicurus - Materialists- only physical things exist
- The moral good is pleasure, the bad is pain
- Enduring the bad is good if it leads to later tranquility
- Thinks we should cut romance out of our lives
- Natural Desire (what we naturally need - ex: food, water)
- Non-Natural desires (what we are taught - ex: prestige, luxury)
- Natural Desires that are not necessary (they cause pain - ex: romance and sex)
- All things are composed of combinations of atoms
- You dont have a soul → only your brain and body
- There is no afterlife
- Goal ataraxia and aponia
- Ataraxia: a state of tranquility, freedom from anxiety, anger, hatred
- Aponia: freedom from pain (reducing pain in my existence)
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