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BIOL 2457- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 21 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 2457
Professor
Nicholas Pollock
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTA
BIOL 2457
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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The Cytoplasm
"The juice of the cell"
The cellular material between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
It is where most cellular activities and chemical reactions occur
Cytosol-
About 55% of total cell volume
Viscous and made of mostly water
Various dissolved particles (ions, glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, proteins)
Organelles-
"little mini organ"
Dispersed throughout the cytosol
Tiny, specialized structures with characteristic shapes and functions
Allow cells to grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce
*In some cell types, there are Inclusions
Hepatocytes-glycogen
Myocytes-glycogen
Adipocytes-lipids
Melanocytes-melanin
Mitochondria
Sausage shaped with 2 membranes (outer: smooth; inner: extensively folded)
Are the power houses of the cell, producing most of the cell's ATP
Very abundant in cells that are highly active (muscles, kidney, liver)
Bacteria-like: have own, DNA, RNA, ribosomes, and can reproduce
oMitochondrial DNA comes from Mom
Most of the ATP is made in the matrix of the mitochondria
oKrebs, oxidation, etc., happen here
Endosymbiotic Theory- describes how animal and plant cells may have created mitochondria;
what allows us to use energy
Ribosomes
Small, dark staining granules composed of 2 subunits (abt 80 proteins total)
Have a high content of one type of RNA (ribosomal RNA; rRNA)
Sites of protein synthesis…
Free Ribosomes-
Floating in cytosol
Make proteins that:
oFunction in cytosol
oGet imported into mitochondria
Membrane bound Ribosomes-
Bound to rough ER
Make proteins that:
oGet incorporated into membranes
oGet imported into lysosomes (clean up the cell -> enzymes)
oGet exported from the cell
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
Network of membranes in the form of interconnected flattened sacs (cisterns)
It is continuous with the nuclear membrane
2 types with different functions:
Rough ER-
Studded with ribosomes
Synthesize proteins that become enclosed in vesicles for transport to the Golgi complex
(exocytosis)
Smooth ER- (looks like circles if you make a transverse cut)
Extends from the rough ER
No ribosomes (no protein synthesis)
Extensive embedded enzymes:
1. Lipid synthesis
2. Lipid transport (small intestines)
3. Steroid hormone synthesis (testes, ovaries)
4. Detoxification (liver)
5. Glycogen catabolism (liver)
Golgi Complex-
Stack of flattened membranous sacs with vesicles
Further modifies proteins made by rough ER
Directs the packaging and transport of proteins
Cis is close to the rough ER
Trans is farther away
Peroxisomes, Lysosomes and Proteasomes
Lysosome-
Membrane enclosed organelles containing digestive enzymes that can digest almost all
biological molecules
o"sacs of digestive enzymes"
oDigest dead cells, bacteria, viruses, small parasites, etc.
Have numerous H+ pumps to maintain the acidic pH within
Peroxisomes-
Smaller than lysosomes
Not acidic
Contain oxidases (uses O2 to detoxify harmful substances and neutralize free radicals) and
catalases (convert H2O2 into water and oxygen)
Proteasomes-
Protein complexes that degrade excess or damaged proteins that are in the cytosol (unlike
others, they are not "sacs")
o"break down proteins"
In all different kinds of cells
Help regulate almost all basic cell processes (e.g., mitosis, signaling, metabolism, protein quality
and apoptosis)
Cytoskeleton
Network of protein filaments that extends through the cytosol
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