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BIOL 3446- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 33 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 3446
Professor
Malgosia Wilk
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTA
BIOL 3446
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Anatomy notes
7 layers of the long bone
a. 2 epiphyses
b. 2 metaphyses
c. c. articular cartilage
d. periosteum
e. medullary cavity
f. endosteum
Bone Tissue
- bone is dense connective tissue
- cells contain specialized cells called osteocytes (osteums)
- calls produce and then are embedded in the matrix
- cells are located within holes called lacunae
4 kinds of bone cells: osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteoprogenitor cells
a. osteocytes mature bone cells
b. osteoblastsbone building cells that secrete matrix
c. osteoclastsbreak bones and release calcium
d. osteoprogenitor cellsbone stem cells able to differentiate into other types of cells
Osteocytes
- mature bone cells
- maintain protein and mineral content of matrix
- help repair damaged bone
- - live in lacunae
- totally immersed in matrix
- communicate by cytoplasmic extensions through canaliculi in matrix
- do not divide
Osteoprogenitor cells
- found on the inner
osteoblasts
- immature bone cells that secrete matrix during osteogenesis (they build bones)
- initially matrix is made out of protein and is soft and called osteoid
- - osteolasts eoe surrouded  oe atri trapped ad eoe osteotes
- found on inner and outer surfaces of bone
Osteoclasts
- giant, multicellular cells
- dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals (osteolysis) by secreting acids and
protein digesting enzymes
- - necessary for bone building
Bone Matrix
- bone matrix is made out of proteins and minerals
- 1/3 of bone matrix is protein (collagen); 2/3 of bone is calcium phosphate that forms
crystals of hydroxyapatite
- bone matrix also contains calcium salts, potassium, and sodium salts
- - other ions make crystals imperfect preventing bones from cracking along straight lines
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How would the strength of the bone be affected if the ratio of collagen to hydroxyapalite
increased? Strength increases, and flexibility increases
2 kinds of osteous bone tissuecompact bone and spongy bone
a. compact bonedense and solid
i. forms the walls of the bone outlining the medulliary cavity
ii. medullary cavity consists of bone marrow
b. spongy bonetrabecular bone
i. open network of plates
Compact Bone
- osteon is the basic unit of mature compact bone (cylinder)
- matrix is arranged in concentric lamellae around a central canal containing blood vessels
- perforating canals carry blood vessels into bone and bone marrow
Spongy Bone
- does not have osteons
- the matrix forms an open network of trabeculae (which have no blood vessels)
- they are positioned along the lines of tension and compression
Bone Marrow
a. Red bone marrowcontains blood vessels, it forms blood cells
b. Yellow bone marrowstores fat; it is mostly found in cylinders of long bones
Blood and Nerve Supply of Bone
- Periosteal arteries aopaied  eres eter the diaphsis through the Volka’s
canals. They are accompanied by periosteal veins
- A nutrient artery enters the center of the diaphysis through a nutrient foramen.
Nutrient veins exit via the same canal
- The metaphyses and epiphyses also have their own arteries and veins
Bone Formation
Ossificationthe process of bone formation
4 situations for bone development:
a. During embryological and fetal development
b. When bones grow before adulthood
c. When bones remodel
d. When fractures heal
Bone Formation and Growth
2 stepsosteogenesis and calcification
a. Osteogenesis- bone formation
b. Calcification- deposition of calcium into the bone tissue
During the 6th week of development, the skeleton is cartilage. The cartilage is replaced by bone
cells in a process called calcification
2 forms of ossificationintramembranous and endochrondial
intramembranous ossification occurs in flat bones when a connective tissue membrane is
replaced by bone (happens in the mandible and temporal bones)
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