[BIOL 102] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (19 pages long!)

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6 Feb 2017
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BIOL 102
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1
Science as data, basis of selection and adaptation
Validity in Science
Hypothesis driven science- scientific method and logic are applied to
support or refute a hypothesis which can never be proven
o a hypothesis is an explanation made on the basis of evidence
collected
o the strength of hypothesis driven science relies on the empirical
nature of its investigation
o a hypothesis can never be proven only supported
Science is a Process
peer review- review of an article by experts before publication
ensures that the authors have appropriately designed and interpreted their
study
weeds out sloppy research
Culture of Science
scientists build on what has been learned from earlier research
o they pay close attention to contemporary scientists working on the
same problem
cooperation and competition characterize the scientific culture
o scientists check the conclusions of others by attempting to repeat the
experiments
o scientists are generally skeptics
depends on observations and measurements that others can verify
requires that ideas are testable by experiments that others can repeat
Two Approaches to Science
discovery base science- describe natural phenomena based on
observations, patterns and correlations lead to a hypothesis
hypothesis driven science- scientific method and logic are applied to
support or refute a hypothesis
Antibiotics
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1992 Alexander Flemming discovered that Penecillium mold generated a
substance that kills bacteria
1941 Howard Florey and Ernst Chain purified Penicillin
the first commercial antibiotic to save lives
Koch’s Postulates
criteria for establishing a causation linked between an infectious agent and
a disease
o microbe found in affected host
o microbe isolated
o microbe introduced to a healthy host
o strain obtained from host and compared to the first host
Barry Marshall
o Drak to fulfill Koch’s postulates that it as causatio orgaiss of
some stomach lesions and ulcers
Experimentation
Experimental group- experiences the experimental intervention or
manipulation
Control group- experiences no experimental intervention or manipulation
(basis of comparison)
Correlation is NOT causation
Nomenclature of Data
Independent variable- variable that stands alone and is not influenced by
other variables
Dependent variable- variable that depends on other factors
Forming Hypothesis
Hypothesis is never proven
If false it is rejected and no longer considered an answer
If it is supported, it is accepted until further testing
Drawing Conclusions
Sample size- statistical significance
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