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7 Feb 2017

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1. Explain two approaches to scientific inquiry.
Discovery science- describe natural phenomena based on
observations. Patterns and correlations lead to formation of a
Hypothesis Driven Science- scientific method and logic are applied to
support or refute a hypothesis
2. Explain the process of designing an experiment and important
considerations to keep in mind during that process as a scientist.
You must first make an observation about a specific thing. Once you
make your observation you think of a question you would like to
know more about. Once your question is formed you can for a
hypothesis. You should make a prediction about your hypothesis and
then conduct the experiment.
3. Explain how bacteria divide.
Bacteria reproduce through a process called binary fission. Binary
fission is a form of asexual reproduction in which a single parent cell
replicated its contents and the divides into two daughter cells. Each
daughter cell inherits all its DNA from the single parent cells.
4. Explain how bacterial resistant strains are generated and two different
ways (vertical vs. horizontal transmission of genes) that resistance may
Horizontal gene transfer is the movement of genetic material
between unicellular and multicellular organisms.
Vertical transmission is the transmission of DNA from parent to
5. Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype and what an allele
Geotpe is a orgais’s olletio of gees or alleles
Pheotpe is a orgais’s oserale harateristics
6. Explain a few reasons why antibiotic resistance is on the rise.
An entire population can evolve when some traits are favored more
than others
A bunch of bacteria including resistant variety get bathed in
antibiotics. Most of the normal bacteria die. The resistant bacteria
multiply and become more common. Eventually the entire infection
evolves into a resistant strain.
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7. Explain why it is so hard to design new antibiotics that bacteria have no
resistance to.
IN the presence of any antibiotic resistant bacteria have a higher
fitness and reproduce more often and therefor pass their resistant
alleles in greater numbers.
8. Explain 3 natural selection patterns and how selective pressure influences
Directional selection- Shifts the overall makeup of a population by
selecting in favor of one extreme phenotype.
Stabilizing selection- occurs when phenotypes at each end of the
spectrum are less suited to the environment than organisms in the
middle of the phenotypic range
Diversifying selection- typically occurs in a patchy environment in
which extremes of phenotypic range do better than the middle range
9. Explain why a typical domestic dog might be outcompeted by a wolf in the
A wolf has better characteristics that are best suited for the wild. For
example they are larger and have better hearing and smell than a
domesticated dog does.
10. Explain some line of support for both the agricultural hypothesis and
hunter/gatherer hypothesis for the domestication of modern dogs from
Hunter gatherer hypothesis- wolves were domesticated by hunter
gatherers to use as tools for getting food
This could be a possibility because a human may naturally look
for a tool to make it easier to hunt. Since a wolf is used to
hunting a human may be able to domesticate the wolf well
enough to where the human can be near the wolf while it is
finding food.
Agricultural hypothesis- wolves were progressively less scared of
humans by acting as scavengers on waste from large scale
This could be a possibility because like all animals and things,
the more you are introduced to something the more
comfortable you are around them. The wolves may have seen
the humans several times while scavenging through trash and
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