[PSYC 300] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 28 pages long Study Guide!

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6 Feb 2017
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PSYC 300
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Child development – Area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from
conception through adolescence.
Theories:
Domains – Physical, cognitive, emotional and social
Age in child development:
The prenatal period – conception to birth
Infancy and toddlerhood – birth to 2 years
Early childhood – 2 to 6 years
Middle childhood – 6 to 11 years
Adolescence – 11 to 18 years
à Theories help provide framework to view phenomenon.
Continuous development – A process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills
that were there to begin with.
Discontinuous development – A process in which new ways of understanding and responding
to the world emerge at specific times.
Stages – Qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific
periods of development.
Psychoanalytic theory – Sigmund Freud
Stage theory (discontinuous) consisting of the id, ego and superego
Ego – Works as the mediator between the id and superego
Id – Impulsive side
Superego – Higher order thinking obtained in middle childhood
à It is hard to test individual children and this theory cannot generalize.
Outdated
Sexual focus – oral, anal (toilet-training), phallic (discovery of genitalia), abnormal family
set-up (kids fall in love with their opposite sex parent)
Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory
State theory (discontinuous)
Differ from Freud as they focus on the social aspect of our development.
Behaviorism and social learning – Albert Bandura
Social learning – modeling and imitation – learning through observation
Observable behaviors, stimuli and response
Leads to personal standards and self-efficacy
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Behavioral modification – Approach based on the principles of operant conditioning, replaces
undesired behaviors through positive or negative reinforcement.
Piaget: Cognitive-developmental
Stage theory (discontinuous)
à Actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore.
Children are not little adults
Sensorimotor – Birth to 2 years (object permanence)
Preoperational – 2 to 6 years (references things in words but have no logical reasoning.
Hypothetical)
Concrete operational – 7 to 11 years do not understand different conservation of liquid (same
amount in small glass vs. big glass)
Formal operational – 12 and up (abstract reasoning)
Adaptation – Adapt as they explore
Information processing
Continuous development theory – development is a process
à Computer analogy of thought – input and output
Symbol-manipulating system
Children are active, sense-making beings
Ethology
à Concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history
Lorenz and imprinting – baby birds need mother/father figure to survive.
Critical period in humans in regards to love
Evolutionary development
à Seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional and social
competences as they change with age.
Context – Environment and its role in development
Vygotsky: Sociocultural (context)
à Focuses on how culture, values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group is
transmitted to the next generation.
Social interaction is key.
Ecological systems (context)
à Complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding
environment.
Microsystem, mesosystem, macrosystem, exosystem and chronosystem
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