Chapter 16 - lower motor system: sensory local motor circuit motor pools muscle ventral horn of spinal cord = where motor neurons are located. Golgi-tendon organs: does not go off with contraction, golgi homonymous negative feedback flexion response nociceptive; interneuron; flexors. Still produces rhythm disease = als progressive loss from caudal to rostral. 2 systems: cortex ventral horn (corticospinal, brainstem ventral horn (corticobulbar) Chapter 18 - basal ganglia (motor): modulates upper motor neurons. Huntington"s disease loss of class of spiny neurons = loss of inhibition/hyper-activity. 3 opposing pairs of muscles: medial/lateral rectus (abducens nucleus) controls horizontal movements. Chapter 21 - motor: visceral: visceral autonomic: smooth muscle, cardiac, glands sympathetic (up) vs. parasympathetic (down) gut hypothalamus spinal cord: synaptic contacts more diffusive sympathetic (does not act in an all-or-none fashion!) = lateral horn para-vertebral sympathetic chain ganglia (nor-adrenergic) parasympathetic = nucleus ambiguous/sacral nuclei plexus at each target (cholinergic) enteric (ens) : parasymp.