[PSYC 2150] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 14 pages long Study Guide!

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PSYC 2150
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 5 Notes
Operant Conditioning
Classical conditioning vs. operant conditioning
o Classical presence of 1 stimulus (food) is conditional on the presence of another
stimulus (bell)
Limited and rare
o Operant animal generates response and response has consequences
Animal does an action first, and based on the action faces consequences
*** People to Know Watson, Pavlov***
Basics of Operant Conditioning
o Edward Thorndike
Cat puzzle box
Cat wants to get out of box, pedal inside can open box if stepped on
Study shows amount of time cat uses to get out of the box decreases with each
trial
Law of Effect - responses which produce a pleasant or satisfying result in a
certain situation are more likely to occur again in the situation. Likewise,
responses with an unpleasant or annoying effect are less likely to be repeated
o BF Skinner
Skinner box pigeon in box, if it pecks the key the pigeon gets rewarded
o Shaping behavior reinforce animal for vaguely doing something for what it actually
needs to do (standards eventually increase)
Ex. Final goal is for the rat to press the lever
Step 1 rat orients his body towards lever
Step 2 rat moves closer to lever
Step 3 rat sniffs lever
Step 4 rat touches lever
Step 5 rat presses the lever
How to get complex behavior to emerge
Trends in graph are of animals who are familiar with the schedules
Schedules of Reinforcement
o Fixed ratio consistent ratio of number of responses and number of reinforcers
Ex. Rat has to touch the lever 4 times before getting rewarded
Steady response
Easy to extinguish behavior
Ex. Factory piece work for every shirt you make, you earn 3 dollars
o Variable ratio set ratio of number of reinforcers, but vary and are random
Ex. Rat has to press 4 times , then 7 times, then 3 times before getting
reinforced
Rapid response
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Hard to extinguish
Ex. Slot machine
o Fixed Interval 1st response after a specific amount of time since last reinforcement
results in reward
Little response until just before reinforcement
Easy to extinguish
Ex. Annual sales
o Variable Interval 1st response after some time since last reinforcement; amount of
time varies
Steady response
Hard to extinguish
Ex. Ferberizing
Letting a baby cry and not comforting the baby will result in the baby learning
that crying will not let it get what it wants
Instead of holding it and trying to calm it down, go to the baby and give it a few
pats and then leave it alone again
Punishment does not work well to change behavior
Stimulus control:
o Ex. Lever pressed and rat rewarded only if red light is on
o Red light discriminative stimulus
What makes operant conditioning effective
o Temporal contingency
o Belongingness
Thorndike tried to condition his cat to groom or yawn to escape box
o Instinctive drift instintual ehaior that drifts into ehaior that’s trying to e
taught
o Quality/Quantity of reinforce more food = faster learning
o What animals might do maximize good things, minimize bad things
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