CDAE Exam I Review .doc

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Cmty Dev & Apld Econ
CDAE 002
Dan Baker

CDAE 002 EXAM I REVIEW Test on February 20, 2013 created by Stephanie Marandi (Life and Debt film, Sustainability Anyways, and Economics in A Real World are not included in this study guide) Paradigms of Development Capitalism- Individuals freely acting out of self interest (maximize pleasure, minimize pain) ---> Free Markets: - prices reflect scarcity/value - restricted govt role (improve business climate) - establish a system of money and credit - enforce contracts - facilitate international trade ---> Malthusian - Humans will not be able to offset their consumption of resources - Good life not attainable at all - Life boat strategies! (Rationing/immigration/population policies) ---> Government Intervention (Keynesian Economics) - free market is prone to instability (Great Depression) - free market generates externalities distorting investments and avoiding feedback - system tends to become a monopoly - need for enlightened govt regulation ---> Neo-Liberalism - set of economic policies that have become widespread in the last 25 years - liberal in the sense of no controls - “neo” in a post Keynesian sense (ie, reduce govt intervention in markets) ---> Ecological Economics -Economic systems based off of ecosystems Main Elements - Reflect the market - Cutting public for social services - deregulation - privatization - replacing the idea of the “public good” with “individual responsibility” Radical Political Economy Dependency Analysis, we see: -Third World/Developing nation underdevelopment is a direct result of First World/Developed nations (overdevelopment) roots lie in colonial history -core/periphery -exchange relations (sell commodities, buy finished goods) Marxist economies, we see: -Government control and ownership of key industries -production relations - centrally planned economies -often use ration-based systems Millennium Development Goals I Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger II Achieve universal primary education III Promote Gender equality and empower women IV Reduce child mortality (prevent pneumonia, diarrhea) VI Ensure Environmental Sustainability VII Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases VIII Develop a global partnership Measurements of Growth GDP: Gross Domestic Product, the sum of value added by all resident producers in the economy HDI: Human Development Index, composite statistic of life expectancy, education (literacy rate) and income, etc indices to rank countries into four tiers of development Very High Development Medium Development High Development Low Development GPI: Genuine Progress Indicator, this adjusts for goods not removed in the GDP such as volun- teer work ex: cost of climate change, cost of air pollution, value of higher education, etc So, how do we know if things are getting better? GNH: Gross National Happiness in any given country Four Pillars of GNH: -the promotion of equitable and sustainable socio-economic development -the preservation and promotion of cultural values -the conservation of the natural environment -the establishment of good governance Eras of Human Development Era I: - 2.5 Million years ago to 10,000 YBP (years before present) - Gathering/Hunting period Era II - 10,000 YBP to 1,000 YBP - Emergence of Agriculture - settled Agriculture - Development of large settlements and civilizations - economic specialization - rapid rise in population Era III - 1,000 YBP to 1750 AD - Plantation Agriculture and Colonialism - International trading systems expand Era IV -1750 to 1960 - Emergence of Industrial Agriculture - Transition from renewable to nonrenewable energy sources - start of the Green Revolution Era V - 1960 to present - some divergent and convergent trends - high input, high yield agriculture - growth of multinational food corporations - increasing scale organic food production - globalization of the economy - redevelopment of local food systems ← ← ← ← ← ← Characteristics of Gatherer/Hunter Societies - small bands of people (25-50 people) - low population densities - highly mobile/nomadic - diet consists of wide variety of foods - little to no food storage - few possessions, simple tools - shared food, no concept of food as a commodity, egalitarian - deep ecological knowledge Kalahari Family A documentary filmed by John Marshall that discusses: - 50 years of Ju/‘hoansi (bushmen) history in the Nyae Nyae (Kalahari) ← The Kalahari People’s Food System Shifted into the 1950s -Pre-Ag Kalahari people - the diet included as much meat as they could get and as much vegetable/plant food as they need - After the 1950s their localized food system shifted to a more complex agricultural system - they made a shift in decades that our civilization made in years ← What can we learn about paradigms of development from “A Kalahari Family?” Food Provisioning -Hunting -Gathering Social Relationships -Between genders -within same culture -between cultures Development -potentials of development -pitfalls of development -conflicting goals -Who defines “development” matters --> The Bushmen Myth What does the Kalahari family story teach us about paradigms of development? -The importance of trust and friendships -The persistence and commitment that John Marshall and the Ju/‘Hoansi evolved in their relationship over time -The numerous unique elements of culture (language, body image, gender roles, eco- knowledge, humor) -How a paradigm (ie. The Bushmen Myth) can cloud policy -The importance of humility and precaution -The diseases of development (when development leads to poverty, alcoholism, domestic violence, TB, loss of community and culture.) -the perils + promise of ecotourism -fundamental principle of participation --> the risk of assuming what is best for someone else --> how the international indigenous community organizations are working to strengthen their voice What is the Bushmen myth? life or death bushmen video -Lynching, killings (evil, “devils”) Bushmen were being lynched -Forced labor, no need to consult or pay -displacement from traditional lands -gatherers and hunters, not farmers -”children of nature”, they have no “traditional knowledge” -others -Bushmen do not have the capacity to decide their future for themselves... so others need to decide it for them Where are the Bushmen today? -
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