What is crime violation of social expectations. What is punishment authoritative retribution appropriate for crime after due. Grotius law of war (1583-1645): this work leads us to the notion of. A punishment by the state; the legitimate use of force in war led naturally to. Three ways to prevent recurrence of same injury from offender a b c removing offender depriving him power to do harm compelling him to better habits of thought or action. He thought that the power to punish should be in the hands of the state rather than individuals because the state is less variable and more standardized in their methods. If power with individuals, vengeance comes about, whereas it doesn"t with power in state. Acts not punishable by human laws a b bodily habits of the mind c public or individuals punishment, not private punishment. Beccaria on crimes and punishments power to prevent the deed- forbearance.