[BIOLOGY 361] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 19 pages long Study Guide!

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BIOLOGY 361
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Midterm Study Guide
Introduction to Ethics
The exam will consist of multiple choice, matching (thinker with view), and short essay.
Thinkers: Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, J. J. C. Smart, Peter Singer, Ken Kipnis, Immanuel
Kant, W. D. Ross, Aristotle, Carol Gilligan, Nell Noddings
Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham
The view that the rightness or wrongness of an action or rule is determined by
the benefit of utility produced.
Consequentialism
The rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by the consequences of
the action
The Trolley Problem
To save the trolley full of people or to push the fat guy to save the trolly.
The Principle of Utility (or Greatest Happiness Principle)
The principle of utility (greatest happiness principle): an action or rule morally
right if it produces the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number.
Betha’s three features of utilitariais
Betha’s utilitaiais is HEDONISTIC (based on pleasure, the relevant form of
benefit or utility is pleasure)
QUANATATIVE (what matters is the amount of
pleasure produced by an action
IMPARTIAL o oe’s pleasue attes oe tha
aoe else’s
Betha’s utilitaria alulus
Intensity of pleasure/pain
Duration
Certainty
Propinquity (remoteness)
Fecundity (leads to similar)
Extent
Purity
Psychological Hedonism
All human behavior is motivated by the pursuit of pleaser and the avoidance of
pain
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Hedonism
Higher and lower pleasures
Higher: more refined and distinctly human pleasure
Lower: less refined and move animalistic pleasure
Mill’s test for higher ad loer pleasures
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A pleasure P is qualitatively more refined that a pleasure Q just in case: for those
who have had experience of both P and Q, the majority prefer p.
The role of education for Mill
Greatest happiness principle is about maximizing collective happiness, not
individual happiness. Education is important for bringing this about in society.
Act vs. Rule utilitarianism
Act: Action A is morally required just in case it maximizes good results
Rule: Atio A is oall euied, just i ase it’s a toke istae of geeal
rule R, such that R would maximize good results.
The various objections to utilitarianism (e.g., the argument from partiality)
1. Aguet fo patialit: at util. euies that e e ipatial ut
sometimes is morally required is that we be partial
2. The oal status of a atio is’t etiel a atte of the oseuees
3. Problem of justice: maximizing happiness is unfair
Moral duties vs. supererogatory goods
Donating to charity is a superogatory, not an obligation
“art’s ritiis of rule utilitariais
Argues that rule utilitarianism is an irrational form of rule of worship
1. In order for rule util. to be logically distinct form act util. the forms must at
times forbid acts that are optimal
2. If rule util. must at times forbid acts that are optimal, then rule util.
undercuts the goals of util. which is to maximize happiness
CONCLUSION: in order for rule util. To be logically distinct form act util. it
must undercut the goals of utilitarianism
“iger’s pod eaple
You are morally required to save the child at the cost of your shoe
“iger’s arguet for a oligatio to gie to harit
We ought to do so, idiiduals are not doing enough and same with
government
Responses to Singer (e.g., proximity)
1. Thee’s o oligatio to gie eause its ulea hethe the aid ill get
there
2. I have an obligation to save the child in the pond because he or she is not far
from me, whereas cases of poverty are (proximity is morally irrelevant)
3. Thee ae plet of people ho a sed oe, ut do’t, so h should I?
ues do’t lesse oligatio
4. Donating to charity is a supererogatory, not an obligation
Kipnis and the case of the infected Spouse
1. The doto kos Ade is ifeted ith HIV ad kos it’s otagious
2. The doto kos Wila is’t ifeted ith HIV
3. Wilma in serious vulnerability
4. If Wilma was informed, she would probably refrain
5. You have a special obligation to Wilma
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