[GENED 110] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (34 pages long)

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GENED 110
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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WOTA
November 14th Notes
Early Islamic Art
Dome of the Rock
Blended various influences to create something unique, made from surrounding cities,
states, cultures. Byzantine and Roman elements. After takeover of Jerusalem, create Dome of the
Rock. On the site of King Solomon’s temple. Location is chosen to show power. Site of near
sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham, where Adam is buried. No significance to Islam, only a power
play. Earliest Islamic monument to survive. Dome based on Byzantine domes. Center of
structure is open, see holy rock where Isaac is about to be sacrificed and where Adam is buried.
Not designed to be a mosque, only a religious site. Writing in Kufic script, like in Quran, inside.
Great Mosque at Damascus
Capital of Islam, in middle of trade routes. Financial decision. Built from original
Byzantine church. Courtyard is framed by arcade. Arches from Roman influences. Mosaics
inside, no people featured, but there is architecture, plant life, animal life, etc. Created by hired
Byzantine artists.
Chinese Art
Art is considered a service, not signed.
The First Emperor
First to work on Great Wall of China. Central bureaucracy, standard weights and
measures. Makes trade simple. Repressed schools of thought other than legalism, which says
govt. is the highest power. Replaces feudal lords.
The Terracotta Army
700,000 laborers work on Emperor’s tomb. 6,000 life-size painted figures. Bodyguards.
Not all identical. Different dress, hair, faces. Used molds for different body parts, i.e., 12 arms,
20 torsos, 50 heads, and then parts are mixed and matched. Found in other tombs, but with less
figures.
Song Dynasty
Introduction to civil service exams, rather than work being passed down from parent to
child. Education comes to prominence, paper money, gunpowder, etc.
Fan Kuan
From Song Dynasty, high point of Chinese painting. Artist in China based on concept of
literati, rich people who walk away from their wealth to become philosophers. Believed nature
was the best teacher, and other artists should be ignored so one can pursue individual style.
Sought to capture essence of nature. Travelers among Mountains and Streams by Fan Kuan,
Northern Song, early 11th century. Used watercolor on silk. Nature dwarfs humans.
Transcendentalism. Varied perspectives, above or ground level, to pay artificial attention to the
most beautiful elements of landscape.
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India and Pakistan
Civilization develops in Indus river valley. 2600 1500 BC. Trade with Mesopotamians,
Egyptians, trade routes developing. Cities oriented toward cardinal directions. Very advances.
Multistory brick homes, mud brick. No apparent temples/palaces. Grows from Silk Road trade.
Sanchi Monastery, The Great Stupa, Sanchi, India
Buddhist monastery. One of the first. Stupa in the middle. Houses a relic. Something
related to the Buddha housed inside. Sacred, not to be entered. Sort of like a tomb. Visitors walk
around it in a counter-clockwise direction. Veneration is open to all.
Gandhara
Meditating Buddha, Gandhara, Pakistan, 2nd century CE. Carved out of gray stone, schist,
dressed as Buddhist monk. Key masculine figure for Buddhists. Hands in meditating gesture.
Gives idea of what viewers should be doing. Greco-Roman influences, attention to human form.
Japan
Historically speaking, not a closed culture. Trade with Korea/China.
Shunjobo Chogen
Great priest, architect in Japan. Lives during time of destruction after a civil war.
(Shunjobo Chogen, Tadaiji, Nara, Japan, Kamakura Period, early 13th century). Great pains to
appear lifelike. Added detail of beads. Influenced by Chinese art.
Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace, Events of Heiji Period, Kamakura, 13th Century
Interesting use of perspective, downward angle. Trying to show battle w/ best possible
image, including chaos. From historical narrative, palace attacked, emperor taken prisoner.
Shows fervor, destruction. Color, brushwork used to enhance chaos.
Teotihuacan
Not Mayan, not Aztec. Predates Aztecs, coexisted with Mayans. Trade/war with Mayans. Built
b/w 100 BC and 250 CE. Square grid layout. ¼ million people. Disappeared. City found by
Aztecs. Don’t know who built it. Aztecs thought gods built city. They worshipped city, buried
dead there. Temple of Quetzalcoatl, feathered serpent god of war and weather.
Temple of Q
100 sacrificial victims found in and around temple. Indicates militaristic expansion with
Mayans, because sacrifices commemorate big events. Depictions of seashells, shows contact
with coast.
Classic Maya
Occupied Yucatan peninsula down into Honduras.
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