[BIOL 1010] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (25 pages long)

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6 Feb 2017
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Valdosta State University
BIOL 1010
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Hierarchal Levels of Organization of the
Natural World
Biological Diversity at Organismal Level
Extraterrestrial/Spatial
o Universe Totality of everything in the natural world
Is the Universe Finite or Infinite?
No clear answer, many possibilities
o Galaxy millions of stars held together by gravitational force
o Planets stuff left over from Sun formation
o Ecosphere living and nonliving organisms; everywhere there’s life on Earth and
the nonliving things they interact with
Living = Biotic Factors, live in Biosphere (everywhere there’s life)
Ecosphere is environmental, Biosphere is life-focused
Atmosphere is predominantly Nitrogen
Lithosphere = Outer surface; Geosphere = Crust
Ecosphere does NOT include the entire Earth
o Climatic Regions run in bands around Earth, not as inclusive
Areas right above and below equator tropics
Tropic of Cancer in North
Tropic of Capricorn in South
Below/Above Tropics Temperate/Moderate Regions
Arctic Circle at top, Antarctic at bottom (Polar Regions)
Equator is largest region, Arctic and Antarctic smallest regions
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Ecological Regions
o Biomes large geographical regions with characteristic features
(climates/conditions and plant matter)
Vary on how close they are to the equator (latitude changes)
o Ecosystems are characterized by their precipitation and relative temperatures
o Community living organisms in a particular region
o Population all members of same species in one place at one time
o Species/Organisms living things
Physiological Levels of Organization (listed LARGE to small)
o Body Systems
o Organs
o Tissues
o Cells
o Organelles
Chemical and Physical Levels of Organization (listed LARGE to small)
o Macromolecules biggest in living organisms
o Compounds more than one atom, use of two different chemical elements
(Molecule more than one atom)
o Elements smallest form of identifiable matter
o Subatomic Particles
o Quarks what make up protons and neutrons in nucleus; not seen
We know they exist because if a proton or neutron is blasted, the item gets
deflected
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