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PSYC 3300- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 20 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3300
Professor
Dr.Branscome
Study Guide
Midterm

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VSU
PSYC 3300
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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I) Introduction to Behavior Modification
A) What is a behavior?
1) Anything a person says or does
(a) Specifically actions
(b) AKA activity, actions, or reactions
2) Primarily focused on what is seen or heard
(a) Observable behaviors
(b) Overt or external behaviors
(i) Ex: a child screaming or throwing a tantrum
(ii) Speaking, writing, most forms of communication
3) Also an interest in unobservable behaviors and thoughts
(a) AKA covert behaviors
(b) Unfortunately, they are difficult to quantify
(i) A person’s mental capabilities
(ii) It is difficult to quantify what goes on in another person’s brain
(iii)Sometimes the person doing the covert behaviors doesn’t even understand that
they are doing the behavior
(iv) Others may lie about covert behaviors that they are embarrassed about or
those that could be compromising to their position or standing\
(c) Influence of drugs, alcohol, and other stimulants/depressants
(i) These all lead to modified behavior while under their influence
(ii) Antecedents
(iii)Can be positive or negative influences (prescription/illegal drugs)
4) Specificity is incredibly important
(a) When attempting to modify a certain behavior, it is immensely important to be
extremely specific in defining the behavior that will be changed
(b) Without specificity:
(i) Could miss important details about the behavior in question
(ii) Therapies would have little effect on behavior if they are focusing on the
wrong behavior
(iii)Could only partially change the behavior
(iv) Treat only a symptom, leaving the cause of a behavior, making the subject
revert to previous undesirable behaviors
5) Excess and Deficits
(a) Excess
(i) Problem behaviors that are exhibited more often than the desired amount
(ii) Children’s tantrums
(iii)Can vary between cultural standards (individualistic vs. collectivistic)
(iv) May also depend on social situations (classroom setting vs. sporting events
(b) Deficits
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(i) Too little of a desired behavior
(ii) Helping others
(iii)Exercising
(iv) Eating healthy
(v) Studying
6) Key elements of behavior modification
(a) The behavior MUST be defined in a measurable way
(i) Allows you to know for certain what behavior needs to be changed
(ii) Also allows the modifier to monitor changes in the behavior in question in
order to identify if the modification is successful
(b) The behavior’s treatments and techniques must be ways of altering an individual’s
environment
(c) Methods and rationales need to be described precisely
(i) Allows others to pick up where you left off
(ii) Can identify what went wrong if unsuccessful
(d) Often applied to everyday life
(i) No point in changing rare or one-time behaviors
(ii) We are mostly concerned with what we have to deal with every day
(e) Treatments and recommendations should be supported by empirical data
(f) Emphasize through scientific demonstration that a specific intervention was
responsible for any change in behavior
(i) Must do treatments meticulously
(ii) One at a time to ensure correct data
(g) Places a high value on the accountability of all involved in behavior modification
programs
(i) Have to be consistent and proper
(ii) Will be held accountable if corners are cut and something goes wrong
7) Behavioral assessment
(a) Involves collection and analysis of data in order to
(i) Identify and describe target behavior
(ii) Identify possible causes of behavior (solve root of problems)
(iii)Guide selection of the appropriate behavioral treatment
(iv) Evaluate the outcome of treatments
(b) Applying a form of the scientific method in order to understand if anything is
actually working to change a target behavior
B) Brief History
1) Pavlov
(a) Studying digestion of dogs
(b) Discovered what is known as classical conditioning
(i) Associate one stimulus with another unrelated stimulus
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