# PSYC 3500 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Twelfth Grade, Continuous Or Discrete Variable, Statistical Inference

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Statistics 3500

Practice Exam 1

Part I.

Provide an answer for the following multiple choice, short answer, fill-in-the-blank, and

true/false items. Each item in this section has a value of 1 point.

1. The research process involves a series of steps, or methods, to better learn about and

understand the world around us. Provide two steps in this process.

• Identify a problem and formulate research question(s)

• Review the literature

• Clarify your research question, identify the purpose of the study

• Define the population

• Identify what will be measured and how

• Collect data

• Analyze data

2. True or False A researcher interested in antisocial behavior development obtains a sample of

3-year-old children to participate in a research study. The average score for the group of 20 is an

example of a parameter.

3. A researcher is curious about the average number of delinquent offenses committed by every

high school student in the state of Florida. The average obtained is an example of a ______.

a. sample

b. statistic

c. population

d. parameter

4. Statistical methods that organize, summarize, or simplify data are called _______.

a. parameters

b. statistics

c. descriptive statistics

d. inferential statistics

5. True or False The discrepancy between a statistic and the corresponding parameter is

sampling error.

6. Although research questions usually concern a ______, the actual research is typically

conducted with a ______.

a. sample, statistic

b. population, parameter

c. sample, population

d. population, sample

7. A recent study reports that at-risk youth who participated in an afterschool program had higher

test scores than students who did not participate in the program. For this study, what is the

independent variable? What is the dependent variable?

IV = afterschool program

DV = test scores

8. A researcher wants to examine the relationship between margarine consumption and crime. A

group of 500 adults is selected and each adult is asked to report how much margarine they

consumed and how many criminal acts they committed each month. What research method is

being used in this study?

a. experimental method

b. correlational method

c. non-experimental method comparing two groups

d. none of the above

9. For a research study comparing attitude scores for males and females, participant gender is an

example of what kind of variable?

a. an independent variable

b. a dependent variable

c. a quasi-independent variable

d. a quasi-dependent variable

10. True or False The amount of time to solve a problem is an example of a discrete variable.

11. True or False The number of males in each class offered by the college is an example of a

continuous variable.

12. Using letter grades (A, B, C, D, and F) to classify student performance on an exam is an

example of measurement on a(n) _______ scale of measurement.

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval

d. ratio

13. After measuring two individuals, a researcher can say that Tom’s score is 4 points higher

than Bill’s. The measurements must come from a(n) _______ scale..

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval

d. interval or ratio

14. Provide an example of a measure that follows a ratio scale of measurement.

GPA, time, weight, number of days in jail

15. Real limits are an important consideration when measuring a ______ variable.

a. ratio scale

b. ratio or interval scale

c. discrete

d. continuous

16. True or False The results of a correlational study demonstrates a cause and effect

relationship, as changing one variable causes changes to occur in a second variable.

17. In an experimental study, basic techniques that researchers use to control for participant and

environmental variables in a study includes

a. matching study participants

b. random assignment

c. holding variables constant

d. all of the above

e. a & b only

f. a & c only

18. True or False In a frequency distribution table, it is customary to list the possible scores

from highest to lowest.

19. In a grouped frequency distribution one interval is listed as 50-59. Assuming that the scores

are measuring a continuous variable, what is the lower and upper real limit of this interval?

a. 50 and 59

b. 50.5 and 59.5

c. 49.5 and 59.5

d. 49.5 and 60.5

20. True or False On a statistics exam you would rather score at the 25th percentile than at the

95th percentile.

21. For the following frequency distribution of quiz scores, how many individuals took the quiz?

X

f

5

6

4

5

3

5

2

3

1

2

∑X = 6+5+5+3+2 = 21