BSCI 1511 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Thrombus, Myeloid Tissue, Pulmonary Vein

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Plants
o Know greening response / De-etiolation
o
Mainly light stimulates phytochrome cGMP protein kinase txn
factors turned on for greening
o Auxin works by plasma membrane opening H+ pumps, increasing membrane
voltage & decreasing pH (Acidic)
activates expansins
Low pH = inflow of H20 to neutralize = elongation
IAA = most important auxin
o Ethylene
Triple response = slowing of stem elongation, thickening of stem,
curvature that allows stem to grow horizontally
Molecular basis
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o Phototropism = growth towards light
Darwin experiment w/ removing tip, transparent tip, blocked stem, etc.
Driven by blue light photoreceptors that activate phototropin and auxin
o Gravitropism = phenomenon that plant grows upward against gravity b/c auxin
building up CLOSE to ground (plant grows on side opposite of auxin)
o Phytochromes = type of blue light photoreceptor
Drive seed germination, de-etiolation, flowering, & shade avoidance
**Red light activates, far red represses
Neurons
o Resting potential not -90 b/c a few Na+ ions leek across membrane
o Graded potential = does NOT cause AP, small change in membrane potential
o Vertebrates have salutatory conduction
Myelin sheath composed of Schwann cells in PNS and oligodendrocytes in
CNS
o Chemical synapse AP
Once depolarization occurs, CALCIUM levels are elevated, providing for
synaptic vesicles to fuse w/ plasma membrane and exocytose NT
NT can bind to 2 types of receptors
Ionotropic = causes influx of ions to post-synaptic cell
o EPSP (Na and K) or IPSP (Cl and K)
Metabotropic = NT starts signal transduction cascade
o Slower, but lasts longer & more widespread
o Break down NT w/:
Enzymatic hydrolysis
Reuptake
Diffusion
o Major NT
Acetylcholine = muscle
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Contraction in skeletal muscles, reduced heart rate in cardiac
muscle
Glutamate = memory
Dopamine & Serotonin = sleep, mood, attention, learning
NO = relaxes smooth muscles
o Glial cells
Ependymal cells = line ventricles of brain
Astrocytes = help w/ transfer at synapse; blood brain barrier
Oligodendrocytes = myelin in CNS
Schwann = myelin in PNS
Microglia = immune cells in CNS
o Grey matter = cell bodies, white matter = axons
Grey matter on surface of brain, white matter on outer layer of spinal
chord (makes sense)
o Ventricles contain cerebrospinal fluid
o PNS
Afferent neurons = TO CNS
Efferent = AWAY FROM CNS
Motor system
Autonomic nervous system
o Enteric division = digestion
o Sympathetic = arousal / energy
Nerves exit CNS midway down spinal chord &
synapse just outside FAST
Norepinephrine
o Parasympathetic = calming
Nerves leave at base of brain, synapse near internal
organs
Acetylcholine (lower heart rate)
o Brain parts
Medulla / pons = breathing, circulation, large body movements
Cerebellum = coordination
Diencephalon = thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland (melatonin)
Limbic system = emotion
Amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus
Cerebral cortex = voluntary movement & cognitive functions
Includes cerebrum (language, cognition, memory, consciousness,
skeletal muscles)
o Divided into lobes (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal)
Cortex = outer layer; cognitive function
Corpus callosum = communication between hemisphere
Basal nuclei = planning & learning movement sequences
o Info flow:
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Document Summary

Plants: know greening response / de-etiolation. Mainly light stimulates phytochrome cgmp protein kinase txn factors turned on for greening: auxin works by plasma membrane opening h+ pumps, increasing membrane voltage & decreasing ph (acidic) Low ph = inflow of h20 to neutralize = elongation. Triple response = slowing of stem elongation, thickening of stem, curvature that allows stem to grow horizontally. Molecular basis: phototropism = growth towards light. Darwin experiment w/ removing tip, transparent tip, blocked stem, etc. Drive seed germination, de-etiolation, flowering, & shade avoidance. Neurons: resting potential not -90 b/c a few na+ ions leek across membrane, graded potential = does not cause ap, small change in membrane potential, vertebrates have salutatory conduction. Myelin sheath composed of schwann cells in pns and oligodendrocytes in. Once depolarization occurs, calcium levels are elevated, providing for synaptic vesicles to fuse w/ plasma membrane and exocytose nt. Nt can bind to 2 types of receptors.

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