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ANTH 103- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 26 pages long!)
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 103
Professor
Amy Rector Verrelli

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VCU
ANTH 103
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Archaeology: Studies human behavior, cultural patterns, and processes through the
culture’s material remains
Biological anthropology: studies human biological diversity through time and as it
exists in the world today
Paleoanthropology: Study of hominid, hominin, and human life through the
fossil record
Methods:
Paleontology: study of ancient life through the fossil record
Survey and Excavation
Systematic survey: patterns of settlement over a large area; provides a
regional perspective
Looks at the people in an ancient society rather than just the ones
in power
Survey: looking for remains of archaeological sites
Put down flags before digging to see where the majority of the
artifacts will be
Requires a lot of equipment to record the information as the
artifacts are found
Have things where you find them until they can be properly
documented
Excavation: systematically digging through stratigraphy
Stratigraphy: layers of deposits that make up a site
Site is mapped and surface data collected so archaeologists can
decide where to dig
Collection units are marked off so researchers can record the
exact location of an artifact, fossil, or feature
Excavation is destructive: As soon as you dig down in a site, the
site/artifact is tainted and cannot be learned from while still in the
ground
Many anthropologists only dig half of a site so other
scientists can come back in the future and there will be
other information left over for them
Smaller items recovered through screening and flotation
Palynology: study of ancient plants through pollen samples
Kinds of archaeology:
Historical archaeology: use written records as supplements to study societies
with written histories
Written records are often inaccurate: archaeology is used to “fact check”
what has been written
Classical archaeology: study literate civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean
Greco-Roman culture
Underwater archaeology: investigate submerged sites like ships
Contract (Cultural Resource Management) archaeology: aka CRM arch.,
negotiate contracts for their work, usually through the government
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Used before building/construction projects to make sure the building site
is not archaeologically rich
Experimental archaeology: try to replicate ancient techniques and processes
under controlled conditions
Ex. Video of people spearing animal in South Africa
Kinds of Biological Anthropology:
Bone Biology: study of bone as a biological tissue
Anthropometry: the measurement of human body parts and
dimensions
Paleopathology: the study of disease and injury in skeletons from
sites
VCU Paleopathology Research Laboratory
Molecular anthropology: use of genetic analysis to assess evolutionary
links
Paleoecology: reconstructing paleoenvironments where our
Primatology: study of non-human primates
Ethics
People think that because the subjects are no longer alive or around that consideration
is unnecessary ---> this is false
Responsibilities to people, materials, and species
DO NO HARM to the people or the species that you are studying
Kennewick Man:
Posed question: Who owns history?
“The bones that launched a thousand articles in the press - and a scientists’
lawsuit”
1996 in Columbia River, Washington
~9200 years old (one of the oldest skeletal remains found in the New World)
Confiscated for repatriation (the process of returning an asset, an item of
symbolic value or a person - voluntarily or forcibly - to its owner or their place of
origin or citizenship)
NAGPRA: Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act; for museums
and Federal agencies to return Native American items -- human remains,
funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony -- to lineal
descendants, and culturally affiliated Indian tribes
Significance:
Who were the first Americans?
How did they arrive here?
What were their relationships with other cultural groups?
Controversy: Umatilla Tribe claimed ancestry
Geographic evidence
Oral history
NO archaeological evidence that the Umatilla had been in the region that
long
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
[ANTH 103] Comprehensive spring guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com ● Archaeology: Studies human behavior, cultural patterns, and processes through the culture’s material remains ● Biological anthropology: studies human biological diversity through time and as it exists in the world today ○ Paleoanthropology: Study of hominid, hominin, and human life through the fossil record ● Methods: ○ Paleontology: study of ancient life through the fossil record ○ Survey and Excavation ■ Systematic survey: patterns of settlement over a large area; provides a regional perspective ● Looks at the people in an ancient society rather than just the ones in power ■ Survey: looking for remains of archaeological sites ● Put down flags before digging to see where the majority of the artifacts will be ● Requires a lot of equipment to record the information as the artifacts are found ● Have things where you find them until they can be properly documented ■ Excavation: systematically digging through stratigraphy ● Stratigraphy: layers of deposits that make up a site ● Site is mapped and surface data collected so archaeologists can decide where to dig ● Collection units are marked off so researchers can record the exact location of an artifact, fossil, or feature ● Excavation is destructive: As soon as you dig down in a site, the site/artifact is tainted and cannot be learned from while still in the ground ○ Many anthropologists only dig half of a site so other scientists can come back in the future and there will be other information left over for them ● Smaller items recovered through screening and flotation ○ Palynology: study of ancient plants through pollen samples ● Kinds of archaeology: ○ Historical archaeology: use written records as supplements to study societies with written histories ■ Written records are often inaccurate: archaeology is used to “fact check” what has been written ○ Classical archaeology: study literate civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean ■ Greco-Roman culture ○ Underwater archaeology: investigate submerged sites like ships ○ Contract (Cultural Resource Management) archaeology: aka CRM arch., negotiate contracts for their work, usually through the government find more resources at oneclass.com
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