[BIOL 151] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 16 pages long Study Guide!

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BIOL 151
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BIO 151 Chapter 1
1.1 The Scientific Method
Observations
Hypothesis
Predictions
Experiments
Theory
If results are not consistent, reject or revise hypothesis
If results are consistent over many experiments, hypothesis becomes a theory
Characteristics of Living Organisms
1. Complex
2. Able to change in response to environment
3. Able to reproduce
4. Have the capacity to reproduce
1.2 Chemical and Physical Principles
Law of Thermodynamics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Energy in the form of sunlight or food is taken up by organisms
All organisms convert energy into heat and work (output energy)
NO EVERGY IS CREATED OR DETROYED IN THE
PROCESS
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
THE DEGREE OF DISORDER IN THE UNIVERSE TENDS TO
INCREASE
Heat is released into the environment to offset the decrease in entropy
inside the cell
Concept of entropy -> chaos; is always increasing
o High energy, low entropy
o Francesco Redi Experimentation
Maggots in jar, see if it came from meat
o Louis Pasteur
Experimented pasteurization with straight neck flask and a swan-neck flask
Spontaneous Generation idea
1.3 The Cell
The cell is the simplest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life
o Neurons are one, single long cell; longest neuron is in the leg
The first essential step of a cell is its ability to store and transmit information needed for
growth, function, and reproduction
o DNA: the information archive (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Proteins: the key structural and functional molecules that do the work of
the cell
Steps of Information Storage
Existing proteins create copy of DNA’s information in a form
called RNA (ribonucleic acid)
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BIO 151 Chapter 1
The synthesis of RNA from DNA is called
transcription
The RNA molecule is then “read” in a process call translation,
which converts information tore in the language of nucleic acids to
information in the language of proteins
The pathway from DNA to RNA is known as the central dogma
The RNA in this is mostly known as mRNA (messenger RNA)
Gene: DNA sequence that corresponds to a specific protein product
DNA can also be easily copied/replicated, allowing genetic information
to be passed from cell to cell from one organism to its progeny
Damages in the gene can cause mutations
The second essential feature of cells are their Plasma Membranes that help separate the
living material within the cell from the nonliving environment around it
o Has two layers to it
o The nucleus has the cell’s DNA within it, and protecting it is the nuclear
membrane, which selectively controls what goes in and out
The nucleus occupies a discrete space within the cell called the
Cytoplasm
Eukaryotes are cells that HAVE a nucleus while Prokaryotes are cells
that DO NOT have a nucleus
The third essential feature of cells is the ability to harness energy from the environment
o Organisms acquire energy from two sources, the sun and chemical compounds
o All organisms use chemical reactions to break down molecules, releasing energy
in the process and storing it in a chemical form called ATP (adenosine
triphosphate) that cells can use
Metabolism describes chemical reactions that cells use to convert energy
from one form to another and to build and break down molecules
Viruses
1. Can store and transmit information
2. Has a plasma membrane
1.4 Evolution
Evolution is simply known as change over time
o One way known is commonly referred to as Natural Selection, which is when a
variation with a population of organisms can be passed down/inherited by future
generations, and the variants best suited for growth and reproduction in a given
environment will then continue on to the next generation
Environmental Variation: variation among individuals due to
differences in the environment
Genetic Variation: variation among individuals due to differences in the
genes that are transmitted from parents to their offspring
o Elena and Lenski demonstrate evolution through experimentation through
bacteria
Biologists call the full set of evolutionary relationships among all organisms the Tree of
Life
o Carl Woes (1980s) started to study genes and organize them
DNA
RNA
Protein
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