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BIOL 151
Jaclyn Vick

MEMBRANES  Phospholipid bilayer has 2 distinct phases inner lining looks different from outer lining  Quality of selective permeability -Meaning there’s regulation -Effects rate which things get across -HYDROPHOBIC: (non-polar) -Molecules pass easily -Hydrocarbons, CO & 2 are2hydrophobic -HYDROPHLIC: (polar, ions) -Can’t pass through easily -Either can’t pass, pass slowly, or need help -Water (H 2) doesn’t easily pass  Mostly lipids & proteins -Some carbs  Tend to be amphipathic -Has a hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions -Same goes for the protein parts of the membrane FLUID MOSAIC MODEL “Fluid”  Not static -Lipids move within membrane -Lateral movement of lipids - 10 x per second -Heads switch places once a month (across) -Proteins move directionally Some proteins stay static, possibly due to some cytoskeleton feature  Amount of fluidity varies on temperature -Cold temps = less fluid -Higher proportion of unsaturated phospholipids -Hot temps= more fluid -Higher proportion of saturated phospholipids  Types of proteins: -Integral proteins: extend into hydrophobic region -Transmembrane proteins: a type of integral protein that goes through membrane -Peripheral proteins: bound to hydrophilic membranes. Has to be physically attached somehow  Carbs in membrane -Can be either glycoproteins or glycolipids -Involved in cell-to-cell communication -Sorting of tissues during development -Recognizing a foreign cell -Your blood type depends on different glycoproteins in blood cells. TRANSPORT PROTEINS  Transport proteins: - help transport molecules through the membrane - an example of both integral & transmembrane proteins - can be either carrier proteins or channel proteins  carrier proteins: -Change shape  channel proteins -Creates hydrophilic tunnel -Ex: aquaporins- specifically transport water through membrane - 3 billion2H Os per sec - A way membranes utilize passive transport PASSIVE TRANSPORT  Passive transport: - no energy (ATP) required - ex: diffusion
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