BIO 151 notes-2.docx

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BIOL 151
Jaclyn Vick

***osmosis- type of diffusion; water across a membrane HYPERTONIC, HYPOTONIC, & ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS  non-penetrating solutes, so only water can move  hypertonic: - higher concentration of ions in solution than in cell - “the solution is hypertonic to the cell” - 2 O moves out - cell shrinks  hypotonic: - lower concentration of ions in solution than in cell - “the solution is hypotonic to the cell” - H2O moves in - cell bursts - plants like  animals hate   isotonic: - no net change in movement - animals like  ACTIVE TRANSPORT  Active transport: - energy is required  Molecules are moving against the conc. gradient  Carrier proteins used - Ex: sodium-potassium pump -Ex: proton pump SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP  1. 3 Na from inside bond to “pump” 2. ATP  ADP + Pi (where the energy to change pump shape comes from) 3. The pump shape is changed. 3 Na move out, 2 K move bond to pump, Pi falls off 4. Pump shape is changed back to original, 2 K move out  Cell loses 3 Na + Cell gains 2 K Net loss of 1 pos. charge  Membrane potential- voltage across the membrane  The sodium potassium pump creates an electrochemical grad
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