Carbohydrates - Made of sugars & their polymers
- Small (sugars) or chains (cellulose)
- Monomers= simple sugars
-2 ex of monomers are glucose & fructose
-When you add water, they circle up around the water. They’re no
longer a chain.
- Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy.
- When we eat carbs, most of the sugar largely gets used up.
- Glucose in your blood: 3 fates
1. If energy is needed:
- the molecular bonds are broken down by your cells.
- Then energy is released and used.
2. If energy isn’t needed:
• Short term: link together to form glycogen
• Long term: converted into fat
POLYSACCHARIDES (long carbohydrate molecules of repeated
monomer units joined together by glycosidic bonds) :
- Starch- storage in plants
- Long term energy storage
- Roots (storage) & seeds (to survive when it’s far from maternal
- It’s like a yearly cycle
- Glycogen- short term storage in animals
- Liver & muscles
- Much shorter cycle. Daily/weekly cycle
- Cellulose- plant cell walls - Allows it to stand up right
- This large carb allows plant cells to stand on top of one another
- Chitin (exoskeleton, lobster, insects). Can’t be digested.