CHEM 301- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 22 pages long!)

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Virginia Commonwealth University
CHEM 301
Linda Chang

[CHEM 301] Comprehensive spring guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Organic Chemistry 301 Chapter One: Structure and Bonding Organic Chemistry • C,H,O,N,P are ▯ato▯s of life▯-form amino acids, nucleic acids, and basic structures of protei▯s, e▯zy▯es, hor▯o▯es, re▯eptors, DNA▯s, a▯d ‘NA▯s • Carbon is a group 4A element; carbon can share four valence electrons and form four covalent bonds • Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon-containing compounds • Organic compounds contain: C,H,O,N,(P,S, halogens) Electronic Structure of the Atom • The Atom o Consists of 1) the nucleus* [positively charged, very dense and small] diameter: 10^-▯▯ ▯▯ ▯▯ ele▯tro▯s ▯▯e▯, ▯egati▯ely ▯harged▯ are i▯ the spa▯e arou▯d the nucleus o *the ▯u▯leus ▯o▯tai▯s proto▯s ▯▯p▯, positi▯ely ▯harged▯ a▯d ▯eutro▯s ▯▯▯▯, ▯o charge) • Isotopes o Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons o Mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom • Electron Shells and Orbitals o Electrons are very light, they begave both as particles and as waves o Electrons associated with nuclei are lo▯ated i▯ ▯or▯itals▯- each type of orbital has an energy and a shape associated with it: s=spherical; p=dumbbell shaped; d=clover shaped • Relative Orbital Energies o N= energy level of orbital; l= shape of orbital; ml= orientation of orbitals • Electronic Structure of the Atom find more resources at
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