CRJS 181 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Actus Reus, Jury Trial, Highway Patrol

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7 Feb 2017
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Doane 1
Exam 1 Review Sheet
Chapter 1
Effects of fear
fear of crime & lacking education system → seen as highest problems in U.S.
fear turn law-abiding citizens into outlaws due to high levels of fear for prolonged time
perception that govt. Not adequately keeping public safe → arming of citizens
Vigilantism (seeking justice through lawless behaviors)
scapegoating (unfairly blaming & punishing person/group for a crime
Universality of Crime: there is no society w/o crime it transcends time & space
Difference between misdemeanor and felony offenses
misdemeanor : less serious crime, punishable by imprisonment for 1 yr. Or less
Petty larceny (under $200), vandalism (damage under $100), disorderly conduct
Felony: serious crime, punishable for imprisonment for 1 yr.+
Murder, larceny over $200, burglary, etc.
(criminal law categorizes all crimes and punishments)
Differences between the crime control model and the due process model of criminal justice
operations
-due process → use of accuracy, fairness, and reliability in criminal procedure to protect
individual’s rights (all citizens treated equally under the law)
1. Crime Control Model: repression of criminal conduct = most imp. Function of CRJS
therefore CRJS needs to achieve max. Speed and efficiency
2. Due Process Model: preservation of ind. Liberties = most imp function therefore,
accuracy, fairness, and reliability are keys
a. Goal: only guilty are convicted, rather let guilty person go than punish innocent
**need a balance of both models, but hard to do so
Criminal justice agencies and the structure of the court systems
1. Law Enforcement (police): protect people and their rights and apprehend those who
violate law
2. Courts: interpret law
a. Limited Jurisdiction: deal w/family, tax, and city matters
b. General Jurisdiction: “trials court”, felonies and civil cases tried here
c. Appellate Jurisdiction: review specific legal issues raised by cases in lower courts
i. Supreme Court = biggest appellate court
3. Corrections: local jail, maximum security prisons, probation, and halfway houses
Wedding cake model
Chapter 2
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Doane 2
Difference between thinking versus acting with respect to criminal law
Difference between Mala in se, Mala prohibita, and criminal harm
Mala in se: acts considered inherently evil (assault, theft, murder)
Mala prohibita: acts considered undesirable, but not inherently evil (drug and alcohol use,
gambling, prostitution)
Offenses against morality→ crimes w/o victims; adultery, use/selling of drugs
Political crimes → act viewed as threat to govt.; treason, espionage, bribery
Regulatory offenses → activities of businesses or corporations viewed as threat
to public health, safety, or welfare
Pollution levels, workplace safety, manufacture of unsafe products
Types of crimes and how they are classified
1. Crimes against person (s) → violent crimes involving force; rape, assault, robbery
homicide
2. Crimes against property → property taken unlawfully or misused; burglary, arson,
vandalism
3. Crimes against public disorder → disrupt peace in society; weapons offenses,
loitering, disorderly conduct, nudity
Ways to count crime and what each counts : UCR, NCVS, NIBRS, and self-reports
UCR: annual compilation, by FBI, of crimes reported to police
Show arrests, use hierarchical system for choosing crimes, only info from cleared
crimes
NCVS (Nat. Crime Victimization Survey): rep. Sample of U.S. population is surveyed
annually to determine extent of victimization and extent to which ind. Reported to police
More info than UCR, like education level, income, extent of injury, and
relationship to offender
Imp. for crimes NOT reported
NIBRS (Nat. Incident-Based Reporting System: data collection program designed to
gather info on victims, perpetrators, and circumstances of crime to make data more useful
Assess crime trends
Self-Report:investigating extent of delinquency among young people
Shows cause of delinquency rather than national crime trends
Perpetrators of crime: age, race, gender, etc.
Age: 18-24 most likely to offend and be victims b/c expose themselves to riskier
situations
Gender: men arrested for violent and property crimes, women for larceny
Race: white = 70% of arrests
Theoretical explanations of crime
1. Classical school: perspective that sees crime resulting from conscious exercise of ind.’s
free will; created by Cesar Becerra
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