Test Review for Second Exam

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Virginia Commonwealth University
HIST 104
Brian Daugherity

WWI: Central Powers (GERMANY, Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary) vs Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, Russia [us, eventually]) Starts because Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated by a Serbian nationalist in 1914, because AH was taking land from Serbia; after this, AH declares war on Serbia, then it expands to WWI due to military alliances and secret treaties; also starts because countries are competing over colonies Area between trenches: NO MAN‟S LAND New weapons cause for high death-count: trench warfare, machine guns, chemical warfare, barbed wire U.S. wanted to remain neutral WEST (France vs AH) EAST (Russia vs Germany)Russia pulls out due to the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), where Bolsheviks take over Russia (becomes Soviet Union) WHY DID AMERICA ENTER THE WAR? SINKING OF LUSITANIA/SUBMARINE WARFAREGERMAN ABANDONMENT OF SUSSEX PLEDGE (believed they could end the war before the U.S. got involved), AND ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM (1917) (if America goes to war, Mexico should attack U.S. as Germany’s allies [they’d get back land that was taken from them]); Woodrow Wilson president during war; Wilson did not want to enter war, wanted to remain neutral (America making money selling to both sides); America enters war on the Allied Powers because of submarine warfare (Germany blockading supplies from going to enemy; sinking ships with U-Boats); Sussex Pledge of 1916: Germany agrees to stop sinking merchant ships without warning LUSITANIA: 1915, U.S. passenger ship sunk by Germany, killed 125 Americans Wilson‟s re-election: campaigned saying he kept us out of war; America comes into war in 1917 HOW DOES U.S. RESPOND TO WAR CPI: Committee of Public Information: propaganda indepent agency to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917, to August 21, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. Espionage Act of 1917: The Espionage Act is a federal legislature enacted in 1917. The Act criminalizes and punishes espionage, spying and related crimes. The Act prohibits not only spying but also various other activities, including certain kinds of expression. The Act pursuant to 18 USCS § 793, provides that a person will be punished with fine or imprisoned not more than ten years if s/he copies, takes, makes, or obtains, or attempts to copy, take, make, or obtain any sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, document, writing, or note of anything connected with the national defense. The Act deems any person a criminal if s/he is found obtaining information with respect to the national defense with a reason to believe that the information to be obtained is to be used to the injury of the U.S Sedition Act of 1918: A law enacted on May 16, 1918, during World War I, to restrict public opinion of the U.S. war effort. An amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917, it prohibited spoken and written attacks on the U.S. government or the Constitution and led to numerous arrests. It was repealed in 1921. Bonds: way of selling American govt‟s debt to American public to fund the war Taxes are raised to help pay for war Country goes into MASSIVE DEBT to pay for WWI (happens again in WWII) HOW DOES GOVT RELATE TO ECONOMY IN WWI? War Labor Board: as an arbitration tribunal in labor-management dispute cases, thereby preventing work stoppages which might hinder the war effort. It administered wage control in national industries such as automobiles, shipping, railways, airlines, telegraph lines, and mining. Hoover‟s experience running U.S. food administration: Meatless Fridays, Wheatless Wednesdays, etc; Americans didn‟t have to give up, but was wanted to (First) GREAT MIGRATION: blacks moving from South to cities in North to get jobs (400 thousand to serve in army, going overseas, others take factory jobs); new neighborhoods created flowering of African American culture (Harlem Renaissance), race riots occur, blacks could vote in the North (they‟re leaving Jim Crow in the South; still racism, but not as formal/not written into law); 95% of blacks voting for Republicans (party of Reconstruction) TREATY OF VERSAILLES (1920) Punished Russia for leaving earlyland taken from Russia to create Poland, Lithuania, etc **WILSON‟S 14 POINTS: 1. League of Nations, 2. Austria-Hungary broken up into Austria and Hungary, 3. National self-determination: every country had rights to have states** League of Nations: if country in League is attacked, LoN will back it up/help/etcnever stopped anyone from invading anyone, however U.S. upset because Congress could declare war and this undermined this power Punished Germanyland taken from Germany, given to Poland; Germany had to pay for reparations; they are de-militarized; they have to take credit for the war (they‟re fault); GERMANS WERE NOT PART OF TREATY NEGOTIATIONS Ottoman Empire became states/mandates Wilson didn‟t think Germany should be punished as harshly as it was in the Treaty of Versailles Big 4: France, Great Britain, U.S., Italy AFTER WWI Big challenges HUGE economic contraction due to the switching of wartime production to regular production; America no longer producing wartime stuff, also soldiers coming home looking for jobs; Hoover, at the time, is Secretary of Commerce, credited for getting out of recession via laissez- faire economicsapproaches big companies, asks them to give peoples jobsTITLED “BOY WONDER” Red Scare: fear of communism/socialism, or that it‟d start in the U.S. (large socialist movement in U.S. before Red Scare); Sedition Act/Espionage Act/CPI: cracking down on dissent Spanish Flu: rips through most of country, most of Western worldkills more people than WWI did; kills 650,000 in U.S. in a year (more than we lost in wartime) War Labor Board unsuccessful “Birth of a Nation” and rebirth of Klannew Klan comes after “Birth of a Nation,” much larger than old; comes out of Southbecomes Klan state; differences: anti-new woman (flappers [pushing traditional gender boundaries]/working women [women moved into heavy industry much more during WWI, but lose those jobs after soldiers come home]/19 amendment: women suffrage/college graduates), anti-immigrants (especially New Immigrants [S.E. Europe, Jews and Catholics especially]), anti-change in general, anti-Great Migration, anti-NEW NEGRO New Negro: treated nicely in Europe
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