King Richard III & The Lost Princes - Exam Review Notes
Terms (who, what, when, where, why, how)
Primary Source - a document, object, or text that was produced in as close proximity as possible to the
historical issue one is attempting to interpret. Most are primarily written, but do not have to be.
Examples of unwritten primary sources: anything humans leave behind and the human environment.
Secondary Source - written interpretation as a historical issue that is made after the event. A secondary
source interprets and analyzes primary sources. Usually the work of professional historians such as Fox
and O'Brien. Includes technical detail.
History - a reconstruction of surviving past human events based on records. In Carr's article, history is
explained as interpretations of past events filtered by judgments and points of view. It is important to
remember that there is no "objective" historical truth.
Collingwood Thesis - Appears in Carr's article, "What is History?" Collingwood suggests that history is
the historian's reenactment or formulation of actions and events that have taken place in the past. This
theory suggests that facts mean little and interpretation means everything. Carr asserts that this theory
leads to total skepticism about history.
Lacuna(e) - Appears in Carr's article, "What is History?" Lacuna means a missing part or gap. Lacunae is
important because Bagnell and many other historians share the belief that history is full of lacunae. This
is mainly because not every fact is a historical fact, and a fact awaits secondary scholars and sponsors to
Footnote - a note placed at the bottom of a page of a book that comments on or cites a reference for a
piece in the text. A footnote is important because it clarifies and identifies the meaning of a word or
phrase to fill the lacuna between reader and writer. In historical accounts, it is primarily a conversation
between specialists. Maintenance - Also known as Bastard Feudalism, but refers to a period of change in Fifteenth-Century
Politics where nobles had to form small armies and maintain them with food and shelter. These armies
were also called standing armies and they fought for land and power for the leading noble or king. This
term is important because a well maintained army showed and measured the strength and power of the
King or noble.
Henry VI - ruled England from 1422 to 1461 and died in 1471. Henry VI suffered from a genetic illness in
which stress made him catatonic. Known as a failure as king, as he lost a war in France and lost to Joan
of Arc. Cousins were angry at him for not maintaining political connections during his reign. He married
Margaret of Anjou, who was a smart politician. Richard Duke of York, the eldest in the family, claimed
the throne serving as Lord Protector after Henry was deemed unsuitable as king.
Edward IV - the son of Richard, Duke of York, who rose to power in 1461. He was a skilled politician and
friend maker who had to fight for the throne twice during his reign. Warwick, the Kingmaker that put
Edward IV on the throne, was sent to France to find Edward IV love. Edward IV then undermined
Warwick when he fell in love with a minor noble, Elizabeth Woodville. Warwick turned on Edward IV and
made an alliance against him with Margaret Beaufort. Died in 1483.
Elizabeth Woodville - Queen of England while married in secret to Edward IV from 1464 until 1483.
Elizabeth had two sons and five daughters with Edward IV. Her fortunes changed suddenly when Edward
IV died in 1483. Edward IV's brother, Richard III, was appointed Lord Protector since Edward's eldest was
still a minor. Richard III moved to seize power claiming that since Edward IV had been married before,
her two sons were illegitimate to the throne. Elizabeth took sanctuary in Westminster church, her sons
(who later went missing) were imprisoned in Richard's tower.
Richard III - Edward IV's brother and King of England from 1483 until 1485. Stole the throne from Edward
V, and imprisoned him and his brother, Richard in his Tower. Richard III is the primary murder suspect in
the mystery of the two princes, however the princes were his nephews.
Perkin Warbeck - an English scholar who declared to be lost prince Edward V's younger brother, Richard
in 1491. Warbeck attempted to raise rebellion in Ireland and Scotland many times. An important
uprising took place at Cornwell Landing in 1497, but was ultimately defeated by Richard III. Warbeck was
imprisoned in the tower and upon trying to escape, was executed in 1499. Lambert Simnel - believed pretender to the throne claiming to be Edward IV's younger son, Richard. Had
a striking resemblance to Elizabeth and the lost princes. Simnel threatened the reign of King Henry VII
and led a Yorkist rebellion. The rebellion was crushed in 1487 and Simnel was pardoned, later being
employed as a servant.
Henry Stafford, Second Duke of Buckingham - born in 1455 and died in 1483. Played a major role in
Richard III's rise and downfall, and also a suspect in the disappearance of the princes. Buckingham
begged Richard III to take throne, after the bastardy charges were placed on the two boys. After the
rumor about the boy's death circulated, Buckingham turns on Richard and raises rebellion. Richard
defeats the rebellion and Buckingham was executed.
Henry VII - Ruled from 1485 to 1509. Became King after defeating Richard III in battle. Had motive to
murder princes (the throne) but only if the boys were still alive. He married Elizabeth Woodville to
cement his seat as King. He repealed the Titulus Regius, which removed the bastardy charges from the
princes. He is important because he returned power back to the Tudor family.
Margaret Beaufort - The mother of Henry VII. Had motive to kill princes in fear of her son's life, but not
much of an opportunity without the help of someone higher in power to gain access to the tower. Some
believe that Margaret tried to convince Buckingham to convince Richard to have the princes killed.
Margaret is the suspect of choice for Maurer since she wanted power back for the Tudor family and she
wanted her son safe.
Defend Richard III as an attorney in a trial
o Thomas More argues in "The History of Richard the Third" that Richard ha