PHIS 206 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Protein, Homeostasis, Capillary

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PHIS 206
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Lecture 1: Introduction
What is Physiology?
Physiology is the study of function
o This is contrasted with human anatomy “lesser science”, which is the study of
form. However, physiology is forever intertwined with anatomy.
Biology - study of living things (study of life)
Physiology - study of things being alive
o Study of what stops happening when you die
Basics of Physiology
Experimental, not observational
o Experimentation is necessary to explain what was observed
Many disciplines, but all revert to cell physiology
Complexity arises as cells interact and function with nearby (and distant) cells
Complexity
Levels of Complexity
o Chemical → a molecule in the membrane that encloses a cell
o Cellular → a cell in the stomach lining
o Tissue → layers of tissue in the stomach wall
o Organ → the stomach
o Body (Organ) System → the digestive system
o Organism → the whole body
Tissues Organs
Tissues are groups of different types of cells performing a specialized task
o Organ - body structure that integrates different tissues and carries out a specific
function (for example: stomach)
Muscle tissue → movement
Nervous tissue → communication, coordination, control
Epithelial tissue (covers) → protection, secretion, absorption
Connective tissue (binds everything together) → structural support
Organs are made up of blends of tissue types
Systems
Circulatory system - heart, blood vessels, blood
Digestive system - mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine,
salivary glands, exocrine pancreas, liver, gallbladder
Respiratory system - nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Urinary system - kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Skeletal system - bones, cartilage, joints
Muscular system (just takes/use energy we produce) - skeletal muscles
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Integumentary system - skin, hair, nails
Immune system - lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, tonsils, adenoids, spleen,
appendix, white blood cells, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, skin-associated lymphoid
tissue
Nervous system - brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, special sense organs
Endocrine system - all hormone-secreting tissues, including hypothalamus, pituitary,
thyroid, adrenals, endocrine pancreas, gonads, kidneys, pineal, thymus, parathyroids,
intestine, heart, skin, adipose tissue
Reproductive system - MALE: testes, penis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles,
bulbourethral glands, associated ducts. FEMALE: ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina,
breasts
World of the Cell
Cells of the body in contact with a controlled environment
ICF: Intracellular Fluid (contained within cells)
ECF: Extracellular Fluid (fluid outside of cells)
ECF has two components:
o Interstitial Fluid (ISF): Bathes cells directly
o Plasma: circulates fuel and wastes to restore composition of ISF
Homeostasis
Cells can survive and thrive only when the ECF is compatible with their survival
The chemical composition and physical state of this environment must be maintained
within tight, specific limits
Maintenance of this EFC makes demands upon the entire organism
This is the process of homeostasis
Cells exist in its own environment, but cannot change its environment. However, the cells
maintain what's inside it
What It’s All About
To be alive, conditions must be maintained
To maintain these conditions, organism must interact with the environment
However, interacting with the environment (life) endangers the conditions
Feedback
To maintain homeostasis, the system must
o Detect a problem and transmit the information (sensor)
o Make sense of this information and combine it with other data (integrator)
o Make adjustments (via and effector) that restore the original conditions
(compensatory response)
And, ideally, restoring the conditions should stop this process (“negative feedback”)
Something is wrong → detected by sensor → informs integrator → integrator sends
instructions to effectors → effectors bring about compensatory response → results in
solution
Negative feedback → as change is happening there is less to fix (less to do). This is why
it is negative feedback. ---> there is eventually nothing to do (until cycle starts over)
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