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PSYC 304 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Social Learning Theory, John Bowlby, Behaviorism

Course Code
PSYC 304
Study Guide

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Life Span Development
Terms for Test One
TEST 1 Chapters 1-4
Definition of Life Span = concept of human development as a lifelong process
Key concepts of life-span development: focuses on the scientific study of the systematic
processes of change and stability in people
Plasticity: shown in many aspects of development, modifiability of performance. Many
abilities, such as memory, strength, and endurance can be improved with practice.
Multi-directionality: as people gain in one area, they may lose in another (pg. 19)
Multiple Causation: influences of biology and culture shift over the life span. Involves
changing resource allocations.
Historical Contexts: each person develops within multiple contexts – circumstances or
conditions defined in part by maturation and in part by time and place
Lifelong: development is a lifelong process of change. Each period of the lifespan is
affected by what happened before and will affect what is to come. Each period has unique
characteristics and value
Multi-dimensional (physical, cognitive, psychosocial): it occurs along multiple
interacting dimensions
Normative and Non-Normative events
Normative Influences: biological or environmental events that affect many or most
people in a society in similar ways and events that touch only certain individuals
Non-normative Influences: unusual events that have a major impact on individual lives
because they disturb the expected sequence of the life cycle.
Cohort: a group of people born at about the same time
Critical Period: specific time when a given event, or its absence, has a specific impact on
Normal development may not occur
Chapter 2
Psychodynamic (Freud, Erikson): Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development covers
eight stages across the life span
oEach stage involves a “crisis” in personality
oEmphasis on social and cultural influences and on development beyond
Humanistic/Contextual (Rogers, Maslow, Bonfrenbrenner)
oBonfrenbrenner: bioecological theory – identifies five levels of environmental
influence, ranging from very intimate to very broad: microsystem, mesosystem,
exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. We must see a person within the
context of those multiple environment
Behaviorist/Learning (Skinner, Bandura)
oLearning perspective: maintains that development results from learning, a long-
lasting change in behavior based on experience or adaptation to the environment.
Seek to discover objective laws that govern changes in observable behavior
oBehaviorism: mechanistic theory that describes observed behavior as a
predictable response to experience.
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