PSYC 1004 Final: Final Exam Review PSYCH 1004

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PSYC 1004
K A Hoffman

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Final Exam Review Chapter 12: What is therapy? Components of therapy • Therapy: a general term for any treatment process; refers to a variety of techniques aimed at dealing with mental disorders or coping with problems of living • Therapeutic alliance: the relationship between the therapist and the client, with both parties working together to help the client deal with mental or behavioral issues • Types of therapist: ▪ MD- medical doctor, highest, administer drugs ▪ PhD- philosophy doctor ▪ PsyD- psychological doctor ▪ EdD- doctor of education • Insight vs behavior therapy ▪ Insight: psychotherapy in which the therapist helps the patient/client understand (gain insight into) his/her problems ▪ Behavior: any form of psychotherapy based on the principles of behavioral learning, especially operant conditioning and classical conditioning Freudian Psychoanalysis: probes the unconscious in an attempt to bring these issues into the “light of day”- that is, into consciousness, where they can be rendered harmless; main goal of psychoanalysis is to reveal and interpret the unconscious mind’s content ▪ Dream analysis and interpretation Neo-Freudian psychodynamic therapies: Therapy for a mental disorder that was developed by psychodynamic theorist who embraced some of Freud’s ideas but disagreed with others. ▪ Neo-Freudian renegades kept many of Freud’s basic ideas and techniques while adding some and modifying others. The therapies have retained Freud’s emphasis on motivation. ▪ Self/ego over id (look it up) ▪ Life over early life experiences ▪ Interpersonal over sexual/aggressive desires Humanistic therapies- treatment technique based on the assumption that people have the tendency for positive growth and self-actualization, which may be blocked by an unhealthy environment that can include negative self-evaluation and criticism for others ▪ Client centered therapy: a humanistic approach to treatment development by Carl Rogers, emphasizing an individual’s tendency for healthy psychological growth through self-actualization ▪ Reflection of feeling: Carl Roger’s technique of paraphrasing the clients’ words. Attempting to capture the emotional tone expressed ▪ Success factors: empathy, positive regard, genuineness, feedback Cognitive therapies: emphasizes rational thinking (as opposed to subjective emotion, motivation, or repressed conflicts) as the key to treating mental disorder ▪ Erroneous to rational thinking- problems arise from errors, rational thinking is key to positive therapeutic change ▪ Cognitive therapy assumes that psychological problems arise from erroneous thinking and sees rational thinking as the key to positive therapeutic change Behavior Therapies Classical Conditioning therapies ▪ Counterconditioning (M.C. Jones, 1924): ✓ Example: Jones treated a fearful little boy named Peter, who was afraid of furry objects. Jones was able to desensitize the boy ‘s fear, over a period of weeks, by gradually bringing the rabbit closer and closer to the boy while he was eating. Eventually, Peter was able to allow the rabbit to sit on his lap while he petted it. (similar to the little albert experiment except unlike Albert, Peter already possessed an intense fear of rabbits and other furry objects) ▪ Systematic Desensitization (J. Wolpe, 1958): A behavioral therapy technique in which anxiety is extinguished by exposing the patient to an anxiety-provoking stimulus. [while patients are deeply relaxed, therapists have them imagine fearful situations. Eventually reducing anxiety each time ▪ Exposure therapy: a form of desensitization therapy in which the patient directly confronts the anxiety-provoking stimulus (as opposed to imagining the stimulus); patient confronts the feared object or situation to delete is exposed to whatever they are afraid of ▪ Aversion therapy: As a classical conditioning procedure, aversive counterconditioning involves presenting the individual with an attractive stimulus paired with unpleasant (aversive) stimulation to condition a repulsive reaction; pairs stimulus with unpleasant stimuli to make them repulsive ✓ Example: smoking a cigarette while smelling a foul odor (rotten eggs) in a confined room to help stop smoking by coupling the cigs with the rotten eggs Operant Conditioning Therapies ▪ Contingency management: an operant conditioning approach to changing behavior by altering the consequences, especially rewards and punishments, of behavior; relationship between a behavior and a consequence; changing behavior by modifying its consequences ▪ Token economy: An operant technique applied to groups, such as classrooms or mental hospital wards, involving the distribution of “tokens” or other indicators of reinforcement contingent on desired behaviors. The tokens can later be exchanged for privileges, food, or other reinforcers. Participant Modeling- A social learning technique in which a therapist demonstrates and encourages a client to imitate a desired behavior Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy- a newer form of psychotherapy that combines the techniques of cognitive therapy with those of behavioral therapy ▪ Rational-emotive Therapy (Albert Ellis, 1987): Albert Ellis’s brand of cognitive therapy, based on the idea that irrational thoughts and behaviors are the cause of mental disorders ▪ Positive Psychotherapy (Martin Seligman, 2006): a relatively new form of cognitive behavioral treatment that seeks to emphasize growth, health, and happiness ▪ Mental First Aid: • Active Listener: a person who gives the speaker feedback in such forms as nodding, paraphrasing, maintaining an expression that shows interest, and asking question for clarification • Nonjudgmental acceptance • Explore alternatives Drug Therapy ▪ Drugs have the ability to calm anxious patients, elevate the mood of depressed patients, and suppress hallucinations in psychotic patients ▪ Psychosurgery: surgical intervention to brain to treat disorders, last resort ▪ Brain stimulation (ECT)- electroconvulsive therapy, application of electric current treating depression: shock makes you forget what you are depressed about Summary: complexity of people and therapy BASIC Behavior Attitude Sensation- perception Imagery- imagine the thing you are afraid of Cognition- self-talk; what do you say to yourself ID Interpersonal- happier and healthier Drugs Chapter 13: Stress, Health, Well-being Causes of Stress ▪ Traumatic Stressors- a situation that threatens one’s physical safety, arousing feelings of fear, horror, or helplessness • Vicarious traumatization- severe stress caused by exposure to traumatic images or stories that causes the observer to become engaged with stressful material • Collectivism vs Individualism o Collectivism- Giving priority to goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly. o Individualism- Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications. • Humiliation: embarrassment; “severe source of traumatic stress” • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): delayed stress reaction where individual re-experiences trauma; relive the situation • Chronic Stressors: long-lasting stressful condition o Work stress: burnout vs engagement o Burnout- a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, often related to work o Job engagement- an employee’s sense of being part of a meaningful work setting where her/his contribution is valued and equitably rewarded (the opposite of job burnout) • Workload (amount of work) , control, rewards (rewards offered by job and valued by employee) • Community: can we do stress (degree of social support), Fairness: if something is unfair, you are less motivated (sense of social justice), values (job goals) • Compassion fatigue: state of exhaustion experienced by medical and psychological professionals which leaves the individual feeling stressed, numb, or indifferent • Compassion satisfaction: sense of appreciation felt by the caregiver, medical or psychological professional, of the work that h or she does • Daily hassles: situation that causes minor irritation or frustration (i.e. traffic) General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)- a three-phase pattern of physical responses to a chronic stressor • Alarm phase (general arousal): first phase of the GAS, during which body resources are mobilized to cope with stressor • Resistance phase (body adapts): second phase of GAS, during which the body adapts to and maintains resources to cope with the stressor • Exhaustion phase (body becomes depleted): third phase of the GAS, during which the body’s resources become depleted • Tend and Befriend: females are biologically predisposed to respond to threat by nurturing and protecting offspring and seeking social support • Cognitive Appraisal: our interpretation of a stressor and our resources for dealing with it Dispositional Factors • Type A Personality & hostility: behavior pattern characterized by intense, angry- competitive, or hostile responses to challenging situations • Locus of Control: a relatively stable pattern of behavior that characterizes individual expectations about the stability to influence the outcomes in life o People with an internal locus of control believe they can do much to influence their life outcomes o People with an external locus of control believe they can do little to influence their life outcomes o Health & Longevity- people with a locus of control are healthier and live longer o Learned helplessness: pattern of failure to respond to threatening stimuli after an organism experiences a series of ineffective responses • Hardiness: attitude of resistance to stress; accept life as a challenge o Challenge- hardy people perceived change as a a challenge and ann opportunity to grow and learn o Commitment- hardy people are very involved and highly engaged o Control: hardy people have an internal locus of control and are good at problem solving • Optimism: positive attitude • Resilience: capacity to adapt and achieve well-being in spite Coping Strategies- action that reduce stress • Negative to positive stress: how do we move from neg to pos? • Emotion-focused coping- regulating one’s emotional response to a stressor • Problem-focused coping- action taken to clarify and resolve a stressor • Cognitive restructuring- reappraising a stressor with the goal of seeing it from a more positive perspective • Social comparison- A type of cognitive restructuring involving comparisons between oneself and others in similar situations o Downward social comparison: comparing with people who are worse off and becoming more positive o Upward social comparison: comparing with people who are similar situation that are coping effectively and copy them • Meaningfulness: sense making (find meaning) & benefit making (finding benefits) • Psychological debriefing- venting emotions and discussing cope with stress; social support; getting support from others • Social support: resources others provide to help an individual cope with stress; social support; getting support from others • Exercise is a good way to reduce stress and improve your general health • Nutrition & Diet- Good health and the ability to cope effectively with stress require a brain that has the nutrients it needs to function well. • Sleep affects our health and stress in a variety of ways. Subject Well-Being (SWB)- an individual’s evaluative response to life, commonly called happiness, which includes cognitive and emotional reactions. • Community • Choice • Competence • Biological • Behavioral • Cognitive Chapter 14: Social Psychology Social Cognition- the thoughts we have about the stimuli in our environment, which typically arise when a schema is activated Attributions- an assumption of why a person is acting the way they do • Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to automatically attribute behaviors to a person’s character, nature, personality traits (disposition) instead of the situation
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