PSYC 318- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 131 pages long!)

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11 Oct 2017
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PSYC 318
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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A psychological dysfunction within an individual that is
a.
Associated with distress or impairment in function
b.
A response that is not typical or culturally expected
c.
A psychological disorder is…
DSM-5 describes behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunctions that are unexpected in
their cultural context and associated with present distress and impairment in functioning, or
increased risk of suffering, death, pain, or impairment
DSM-5 provides symptoms and descriptions of disorders
An accepted definition
Asking us to think about biological, behavioral, emotional, social, and developmental
influence to any mental disorder
People spent a lot of time focusing on single areas in psychology and psychiatry, but now
people are moving away from that approach
Multidimensional model
The field of psychopathology is concerned with the scientific study of psychological disorders
Trained mental health professionals range from clinical and counseling psychologists to
psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers, professional counselors, and nurses
Each profession requires a specific type of training
PhD more of a research-focused degree, extensive practice in clinical research:
methods and practices, interacting with different patients and learning how to treat
them
PsyD practices more than researching, learning how to be a practitioner, applying
research rather than making your own research
Clinical psychologists focus more on severe disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar
disorder, types of dementia, etc.
Counseling psychologists more likely to focus on individuals that are living with things
like major depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, people who can
function in the community
There isn't a really specific divide between a clinical psychologist and a counseling
psychologist
Clinical and counseling psychologists (PhD, PsyD)
Medical doctors, go to med school
Prescribe medications to people with mental illnesses
Psychiatrists (MD)
Marriage and family therapists (MA, MS, MFT)
Professional counselors (MA, MS, MEd) (LPC)
Psychiatric social workers (BSW, MSW) (LCSW)
Psychiatric nurses with PhDs are doing research and teaching practitioners how to
practice as well
Least trained people spend the most time with patients
Psychiatric nurses (AA, BS, MN, CNS, PhD)
Psychopathology is the scientific study of psychological disorders conducted by
Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context
Enhancing the practice
Informs practice
Consumer of science
Interaction of clinical work and science
The Scientist-Practitioner
Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context
Thursday, January 19, 2017
3:27 PM
Abnormal Psychology Page 1
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Informs practice
Determining the effectiveness of the practice
Utilizes science
Evaluator of science
Conducting research that leads to new procedures useful in practice
Synthesizes both
Creator of science
Using scientific methods, mental health professionals can function as scientist-practitioners
They not only keep up with the latest findings but also use scientific data to evaluate their own
work, and they often conduct research within their clinics or hospitals
Research about psychological disorders falls into three basic categories: description, causation,
and treatment and outcomes
Can you provide examples of each research category in the context of anxiety or depression and in
the context of the multidimensional integrative model?
The Science of Psychopathology
Requires a broad approach
Biological, psychological, social factors
Multiple, interactive influences
Neuroscience
Cognitive, behavioral sciences
Scientific emphasis
Defining and studying psychopathology
Scientific Method and an Integrative Approach
Chronic (e.g., Schizophrenia, Bipolar, Personality)
Episodic (e.g., no symptoms between episodes)
Time-limited (e.g., single episode, in remission)
Course
Acute (rapid) vs. (gradual)
Onset
Good versus guarded
Prognosis
Medication, Therapy, Psychosocial, Periodic, Ongoing
Treatment
Study of age appropriate or expected changes in behavior over time
Developmental psychology
Study of changes in abnormal behavior over time (e.g., Schizophrenia, Autism,
Conduct Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder)
Developmental psychopathology
Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Older Age
Life-span developmental psychopathology
Age of onset may shape presentation
Mother, father, 5-year-old daughter, and 12-year-old daughter, treated for acute stress
disorder two weeks following a near fatal airline accident with physical injury, emergency
hospitalization, and medical treatment
Use what you know about developmental issues and what you know about trauma and discuss the
following scenario:
Clinical description
Cause or etiology
Age of onset
Course
Prognosis
Treatment
Using what you already know about ADHD, let's discuss a "typical" case example
Clinical Description
Abnormal Psychology Page 2
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