CRM_J 101 Midterm: Exam 1 Study Guide
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Department
Criminal Justice
Course
CRM_J 101
Professor
Dylan Pelletier
Semester
Spring

Description
EXAM 35 Questions 15 multiple choice 4 sections of 5 matching 2 are names and years of theorists to theory Social Disorganizations Theory Burgess Model 1925 * Blue: Central Business no one wants to live * Green: Transitional zone: recent immigrants, deteriorating housing, factories, abandonments * Red: Working class zone: single family * Yellow: Residential Zone: single family homes with yards and garages * Purple: Commuter zone: suburbs Shawn McKay Social Disorganization Theory - Social Disorganization: when collective efficacy doesn’t exist - Collective Efficacy: when there is no social disorganization Mertin 1957 Anomie Theory (Strain) - Disjunction between socially acceptable goals and means - Accept goals but reject the means to achieve them - Conformance accept means reject goals - Innovators accept goals and reject means which are deviant people Subcultural Theory Coughen 1955 - Subcultures support criminal behavior - Reaction formations - Rejection of middle class values by lower class youth lacking access to approved opportunities for success Sutherland 1947 Social Process Theories - Differential Associations Theory - Crime as a natural consequence of interaction with criminal lifestyles - Restraint theories - Social Control Theory - Neutralization techniques Direct: view that if you punish your kids it'll deter them from committing crimes Labeling Theory Howard Becker 1963 - Continued crime is a consequence of limited opportunities resulting from negative responses of society to offenders Classical and Neoclassical * Move away from superstitions and mysticism * Product of enlightenments * Emphasis places on rationality * Crime caused by free will * Cesare Beccaria * Jeremy Bentham Neoclassical Criminology -Contemporary version of classical school • Rational choice theory 1985 Clark and Cornish: People rationally choose to commit crimes • Routine Activities theory 1979 Cohen and Felson: In order for crime there must be 2/3 of either a motivated offender, a suitable target, and a lack of capable guardianship Franz Joseph Gall and Phrenology -Phrenology is the study of shape and size of head -Based on the size and shape of your head you can tell if you will commit crimes or not Cesare Lombroso and Atavism -Physical abnormalities that distinguish whether or not someone will commit a crime Early Biological Theories -Crime is predetermined and based on genetics • Social Policy: led to the eugenics movement in 1920’s & 30’s • Sterilization would keep criminal characteristics from being passed on to offspring Buck v. Bell 1927 -Indiana was forcing individuals who were unfit to society to be euthanized UCR: Uniform crime reporting programs (UCR/NIBRS) compiled by the FBI NCVS: National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Statistics The UCR/NIBRS Programs - Created in 1927 by IACP and adopted by FBI in 1930 - 18,000 law enforcement agencies provide data - Original program included 7 crimes - Arson added in 1979 - Use of “Crime Index” was discontinued in 2004 - The UCR uses the hierarchy rule ranking crimes which means the most serious crime gets reported National Incident Based Reporting System - NIBRS is incident driven -Goals of NIBRS: Enhance quality, quantity, and timeliness of crime data collection,Improve methodology for computing, analyzing, auditing Historical Trends -UCR/ NIBRS reports crime rates per 100,000 people -Crime rates # of
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