BIO 269 Final: Anatomy 2 Lab Exam 2 Study Guide

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BIO 269
Giovanni Casotti

Bio 269 Lab Exam 2 Study Guide Authored by Drs. Phares and Casotti In General The exam will be a mixture of multiple choice, short answer, and graphing questions that will test your knowledge of physiological principals, your ability to apply scientific methods, and your ability to think critically. The labs covered are Respiration I and II, Renal Physiology and Digestion. You may be asked to: Draw a properly labeled graph given data or an experimental design; Design an experiment given a question; Design additional experiments given a question and results of an initial experiment; Relate experiments done in the lab with theory learned in Dr. Casottis lectures. You should bring an eraser and a ruler to the exam. Write in pencil on the exam. Remember to keep the hypothesis being tested or goal of the stu dy in mind so that your grap h or experiments are relevant! Describe means to tell us how something looks or appears. Explain or Why means to tell us the underlying physiological mechanism(s). You should know how the physiology works in detail for a ll the experiments you conducted in the labs. The Specifics 1. Review the anatomy of each of the systems weve covered in the second part the class. Be prepared to identify structures of the throat, lungs, kidney, bladder, and gastrointestinal tract. 2. Review the introductorybackground paragraphs of each lab. Refer back to your lecture notes andor the textbook to clarify or expand. 3. Pay special attention to any terms or sentences highlighted by bold typeface. 4. Review all of your data from the labs. Know what is considered normal. 5. Make certain you know what the following terms mean and how to calculate them from a graph: Tidal Volume (Vt), Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV), Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV), Residual Volume (RV), Vital Capacity (VC ), Total Lung Capacity (TLC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec. (FEV ), Re1piration Minute Volume (RMV). 6. Know what will happen to the respiration volumes above when the bronchi constrict and dilate. 7. Understand the effect surfactant has on alveolar volume. 8. Understand what intrapleural pressure is and the terms pneumothorax, atelectasis. 9. How do conditions such as emphysema and asthma affect the breathing pattern? 10. Know the structures comprising the upper and lower respiratory tract and the larynx. 11. Be able to calculate the values of the various parameters shown on Figure 1 of the Respiratory Physiology lab. Several of these values can only be determined using equations , for example FEV 1VC. Remember the procedure we used to calculate FEV . 1 12. What is the difference between the Spirometry and Chest Movement measurements (i.e., what are each measuring)? Are there one or more physiological parameter(s) that you could dete rmine from either type of data? What are they? 13. What physiological parameter triggers changes in breathing (i. e., pO 2 or pCO ?2 and how is that related to blood pH? 14. How do inhalation and exhalation affect ones ability to hold ones breath? Why? 15. Consider the affects of differ ences in compliance that occur with age and physical conditionexercise. 1 of 2
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