BIO 431 Final: Molecular Genetics Exam 3 Study Guide

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West Chester University
BIO 431
Jessica Sullivan- Brown

RNA Regulatory Molecules Why did scientists in the 19501960s believe that the primary roles of non coding RNAs was in regulation of the protein synthesis machinery. Who discovered that RNA had catalytic abilities? Why did this discovery contribute to the idea that the roles of noncoding RNAs was primarily during protein synthesis. In what organism was microRNA first discovered in? Why was studying C. elegans larvae development important in this discovery? Describe the general procedure in performing a forward genetic screen. Distinguish between forward and reverse genetics. When would researchers want to perform a forward genetic screen.? When would researchers want to perform a reverse genetic screen? How was forward genetic screening in C. elegans used to discover lin4 (the first microRNA). Were the researchers initially interested in identifying microRNAs? What happened to larval growth in lin14( LOF)? What happened in lin14 (GOF) and lin4 (LOF). What about the data from the lin14 and lin4 studies led the scientists to believe that lin4 was inhibiting lin14. When the researchers determined the gene sequences of lin14 and lin4, what did they find that was unexpected. What were the two lines of evidence that suggested that lin4 was an RNA with regulatory function? (Look at slide 28) What do microRNAs bind to the target gene? How are they thought to inhibit translation. Describe the steps in microRNA gene silencing. o What polymerase is used to transcribe the miRNA genes? Are they modified like an mRNA transcript? o What nuclear enzyme processes the micro RNA? o How is the micro RNA exported o What is the role of DICER? o What is the role of RISC? o When would a microRNA result in mRNA degradation? When would a microRNA result in repression of protein synthesis? What is the most common mechanism. miRNA in Cancer o What is a tumor suppressor? What is an oncogene? How do mutations in these genes affect the gene product (ie. do mutations in oncogenetumor suppressor cause upregulation or downregulation of gene products) o Be able to answer the questions on the miRNA in cancer slides o
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