[COM 219] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 24 pages long Study Guide!

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West Chester University
COM 219
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Common Elements of Communication
Messages
Message Creation
Message Interpretation
Relational Process—> one on one, people in a group, mass media
Messages that elicit response—> intentional or not intentional
Communication: The relational process of creating and
interpreting messages that elicit a response.
7 Traditions of Communications
Robert Craig created the 7 traditions
-Set of concepts
-Theories fall into these categories/ traditions
-Determined by definitions and assumptions
Comm Theory is systematic and thoughtful response by scholars to question posed via human
interaction.
Socio-Psychological Tradition
Defines communication as interpersonal, interaction, and influence
Broad research area: Individual<—> Mass mediated
Socio—> Social
Psychological—> How people process info in their minds
Individuals have innate (born inside of us) or learned predispositions
Nature vs. Nurture
We all have similar characteristics/ predispositions (a tendency to do something)
-Researchers want to discover how most people will react to something
Aggregate data—> Generalizable findings
-Linear (cause and effect)
Research approach—> is social scientific (surveys, controlled experiments, polls)
Research Questions: How do we influence predispositions to produce a desired effect?
Practical Purpose: Which messages will keep teens from drinking? What type of ads do
voters favor?
5 Levels of Focus
1. Who
2. What
3. To whom
4. Channel
5. Effect
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Cybernetic Tradition (Systems theory)
Communication defined as information processing systems
System
Independent parts working as a whole
Information links and creates
Graph example of everything connecting
Mathematics—> analysis of numbers, percentages
Bell telephone
Research approach—> Social scientific because numbers
Reacher question—> How can we most efficiently transfer info?
Noise is the “enemy of information”
Natural systems — metaphor
*Ecological or open systems
Widely applied to interpersonal, organizational, public relations
Friend systems, family systems, social system
Highlights “environment” and evolutionary change
Cultural Imperialism- spreading western ideals to other areas
Rhetorical Tradition
Communication defined as artful public address
Discourse- opposite sides talking
Focuses on one speaker
Practical/ functional
Art/ skill
-Argument
-Organization
-Language
-Delivery
Research approach—> Opinions, interpretation, observation, no numbers
Research question—> How does a speaker address an exigency?
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