BIOL 206 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Pith, Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, Integrin

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6 Feb 2017
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Western Washington University
BIOL 206
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Bio 206
1/4
Overview of Multicellular Organisms
A. Weekly pre-lecture quizzes on reading on Canvas (typically Monday)
B. Do Most iportat oepts after lass every day
C. Powerpoints always available on Canvas
D. Multicellular eukaryotes are united by common cellular features
1. Flexible cell surface
Allows for sufficient surface volume ratio as size increased
Allows for endocytosis-Active Transport. Ex: T- cells--- engulfing of food. Plants can
do endo/ exocytosis but in a different way than animals. (Animals use it to eat- but
plants are autotrophs)action of engulfing that makes it active.
Not unique to eukaryotes
- Example: difference between mouse and elephantmouse has greater surface area
to volume ratio. Because of this the mouse loses heat really fastthus has to eat all
of the tie. A elephat does’t have to eat as uh to aitai ody teperature.
- Ex: Red blood cell can change shape to parachute and slipper shape when going
through capillaries.
- If it is random motion- by chance= passive. If there is direction/organized then it is
active (uses ATP)
2. Complex and extensive Microskeleton
-Microfilaments- actin monomers, requires motor proteins (dynine, myosin etc.),
for cell movement
-Microtubules- 9+2 in cilia/flagella, cell shape, intracellular movement, spindle
apparatus
3. Nuclear envelope and Endomembrane System
- Golgi apparatus
- Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Lysosomes
- Plasma membrane
- Protein made in cytosol: actin, glycolysis enzymes,
4. Digestive vacuoles for intracellular digestionaka lysosomes in animal cells. Ex:
When you put broccoli on the counter it will start to go baddigests itself (starts
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intracellular digestion) . If you want to save it denature the proteins by exposing
to high heat and then freeze it (maintains denatured shape)
- Plant cells do perform vesicle mediated transport
5. Organelle(s) acquired via endosymbiosis
Ex: mitochondria Ex: Chloroplasts
- Formerly free living heterotrophs that digest2 membranes
- Ex: osmosis happens in phospholipid bilayer have fatty acid hydrophobic tails,
hydrophilic headswater molecules get in because they are very tinypassive
transport.
- CO2 gets to chloroplast by passing through walls, bilayer etc.passive transport
Co2 diffuses easily across membranes.
E. What we know about fungi, plants and animals
Similar between plants, fungi and animal:
-need to assimilate nutrients from environment (Co2, O2, vitamins and minerals) fungi=
decompositionextracellular digestion.
- They grow as they assimilate nutrients from environment- leads to aging and
differentiation.
- Any part of a plant can grow rootsex: leaf= asexual reproduction example. Ex:
budding in sponges, hydra.
- Sexual reproduction: flowering
- Fungi: reproduce by spores.
- Ability to respond to environment in short term and long term. (Homeostasis-
maintaining internal conditions to maintain a living)
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