SOC 2000 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Social Inequality, Social Class, Capitalism

79 views81 pages
12 Oct 2018
School
Department
Course
Professor
SOC 2000
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 81 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 81 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Chapter 1: The Power of Society
The Sociological Perspective
Sociology is the systematic study of human society.
Society refers to the people who live in a defined territory and share a way of life
Sociological perspective: seeing the general in the particular… not in categories
The society in which we live has a lot to do with our everyday choice
Social integration has a direct effect on suicide rates
People with the greatest privileges tend to see individuals as responsible for their own
lives. Those at the margins of society, by contrast, are quick to see how race, class, and
gender can create disadvantages.
Global perspective: the study of the larger world and our society’s place in it
The world’s 194 nations can be divided into three broad categories according to their
level of economic development
o High-income countries: the nations with the highest overall standards of living
76 countries
o Middle-income countries: nations with a standard of living about average for the
world as a whole
70 countries
8 years of school on average
Considerable social inequality
o Low-income countries: nations with a low standard of living in which most
people are poor
48 countries
Poor housing, unsafe water, poverty
Comparisons made for the following reasons:
o Where we live shapes the lives we lead
o Societies throughout the world are increasingly interconnected
o What happens in the rest of the world affects life here in the United States
o Many problems that we face in the United States are far more serious elsewhere
o Thinking globally helps us learn more about ourselves.
Changes in Europe during the 18th and 19the centuries made people think more about
society and their place in it, spurring thought about society and the development of
sociology
o The rise of a factory-based economy lead to this
o Along with the explosive growth of cities
o And new ideas about democracy and political rights
Philosophers
French revolution
These changes combined to make people more aware of their societies.
o Sociology born in England, France, and Germany
Positivism: a scientific approach to knowledge based on “positive” facts as opposed to
mere speculation
o Comte’s philosophy
o Most sociologists consider science a crucial part of sociology
Applying the Sociological Perspective
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 81 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Sociologists have helped shape public policythe laws and regulations that guide how
people in communities live and workin countless ways, from radical desegregation to
school busing
The sociological perspective:
o The sociological perspective helps us assess the truth of “common sense”
Asks whether our common beliefs are really true
o The sociological perspective helps us to see the opportunities and constraints in
our lives
Pursue goals more effectively
o The sociological perspective empowers us to be active participants in our society
Private problems become public issues
o The sociological perspective helps us live in a diverse world
We tend to view our own way of living as right/natural/better
Helps in any career that involves dealing with people
Sociological Theory
Theory: a statement of how and why specific facts are related.
Theoretical approach: a basic image of society that guides thinking and research
o 3 basic approaches: structural function, social-conflict, and symbolic interaction
The structural-functional approach: is a framework for building theory that sees society
as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
o This approach points to social structure (any relatively stable pattern of social
behavior)
o Also looks for each structure’s social functions: the consequences of a social
pattern for the operation of society as a whole.
o Manifest functions: the recognized and intended consequences of any social
pattern
o Latent functions: the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social
pattern
o Social dysfunction: any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
The social-conflict approach is a framework for building theory that sees society as an
arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
o Focuses on how social patterns benefit some while hurting others
o Used in effort to understand society but also in effort to reduce inequality
o Gender-conflict theory (or feminist theory): the study of society that focuses on
inequality and conflict between women and men
Linked to feminism (support of social equality for women and men)
o Race-conflict theory: the study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict
between people of different racial and ethnic categories
Symbolic interaction approach is a framework for building theory that sees society as the
product of the everyday interactions of individuals
o Both structural-function and social-conflict approach share a macro-level
orientation: a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
o Sociology also uses a micro-level orientation: a close up focus on social
interaction in specific situations
Three Ways to Do Sociology
3 popular research orientations: positivist, interpretive, and critical sociology
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 81 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.