[BIOL 2960] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (18 pages long!)

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BIOL 2960
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Frog eats a fly buzzing around a pond
Plants growing in shade vs sun
Sweating when hot, shivering when cold
Adding glucose to bacterial growth medium
Organisms respond to stimuli -- examples
Complex multicellular organisms
All living things are made of cells
Genetic code
Basic metabolism
The processes that support life in bacterial cells are very similar to those in an animal cell
Organisms are remarkably similar at the molecular level
Interior of cell separated from its environment
Inside of cell chemically different from environment, accommodates the biochemistry of life
What defines a cell?
Bacteria and Archaebacteria
Complex processes take place, but functions not compartmentalized
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleoid
Ribosomes
Cell wall
Photosynthesis
Not organelles
Some have intercellular membranes
Functional components of prokaryotic cells:
Very crowded inside
Prokaryotes
Processes compartmentalized in membrane-bound organelles
Animal cell
Eukaryotes
Encloses genetic material (DNA)
Site of RNA synthesis = transcription
Pore made of proteins that facilitate movement; not just a hole in the membrane
Inside: DNA replication, mRNA synthesis = transcription
Outside: Protein synthesis = translation, many molecules move back & forth
Envelope separates nuclear processes
9 nm diameter
Many pores in nuclear envelope to allow proteins and other materials to flow through
Contiguous with endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleus
Organelles
Two basic types of cells
CELLS
Lecture 3: Cell Structure & Organization Part 2
Monday, January 23, 2017
1:13 PM
Biology Page 1
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Contiguous with endoplasmic reticulum
Exported proteins & membrane proteins
Proteins that need to be kept away from cytoplasm (digestive enzymes)
Site of synthesis for:
Various modification of proteins take place in RER
Ribosomes bound to RER are not a stable part of RER
Constantly being bound and released from membrane
Ribosome binds to RER when it is translating a protein destine for secretion --
contains signal peptide
RER: studded with ribosomes
Smooth ER: chemical modification, lipid synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum
Membranes of the nucleus, ER, Golgi and lysosomes form a network
Connected by vesicles shuttling between compartments
The Endomembrane System
Composed of flattened sacs of membrane (cisternae) and small vesicles that transit to
and from the Golgi
Vesicles bring protein synthesized to the ER to the cis region of the Golgi, fuse to deposit
content
Proteins are chemically modifies as they move through Golgi
Vesicles bud off trans region, transport modified proteins to their final destination --
vesicles carried by motor proteins, along cytoskeletal tracks (microtubules or actin
filaments)
Golgi
Biology Page 2
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