Lingwistyka opracowane zagadnienia.rtf

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LING 510
Kazimierz Wielki University

one and the many” (Louis Auchincloss). IN BRIEF: A division into two especially mutually exclusive or contradictory groups. A dichotomy is any splitting of a whole into exactly two non-overlapping parts. In other words, it is a partiof a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets) that are: ? mutually exclusive: nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts, and ? jointly exhaustiv: everything must belong to one part or the other. The two parts thus formed are complements . Inlogic, the partitions are opposites if there exists a propositionsuch that it holds over one and not the other. Usage: ? The above applies directly when the term is used in linguistics. For example, if there is a concept A, and it is split into parts B and not-B, then the parts form a dichotomy: they are mutually exclusive, since no part of B is contained in not-B and vice-versa, and they are jointly exhaustive, since they cover all of A, and together again give A. An important topical division is between the study of language structure (grammar ) and the study of meaning semantics ). Grammar encompasses morphology (the formation and composition of words ),syntax (the rules that determine how words combine into phrases and sentences ) and phonology (the study of sound systems and abstract sound units). Phonetics is a related branch of linguistics concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds ( phones ), non-speech sounds, and how they are produced and perceived . Other sub-disciplines of linguistics include: evolutionary linguistiwhich considers the origins of language; historical linguistwhich explores language change; sociolinguisticswhich looks at the relation between linguistic variation and social structures;psycholinguisticswhich explores the representation and functioning of language in the mind; neurolinguisticswhich looks at the representation of language in the brain; language acquisitionwhich considers how children acquire their first language and how children and adults acquire and learn their second and subsequent languages; in addition, discourse analysis is concerned with the structure of texts and conversations, and pragmatics with how meaning is transmitted based on a combination of linguistic competence, non-linguistic knowledge, and the context of the speech act. Linguistics - Dichotomies and language The study of linguistics can be thought of along three major axes, the endpoints of which are described below: ? Synchronic vs Diachronic: Synchronic study of a language is concerned with its form at a given moment; Diachronic study covers the history of a language or family of languages and structural changes over time. ? Theoretical vs Applied: Theoretical (or general) linguistics is concerned with frameworks for describing individual languages and theories about universal aspects of language; applied linguistics applies these theories to other fields. ? Contextual vs Autonomous: Contextual linguistics is concerned with how language fits into the world: its social function, how it is acquired, how it is produced and perceived. Autonomous or Independent linguistics considers languages for their own sake, aside from the externalities related to a language. Sometimes the terms macrolinguistics and microlinguistics are used for the corresponding terms of this dichotomy. Given these dichotomies, scholars who call themselves simply linguists or theoretical linguists, with no further qualification, tend to be concerned with autonomous, theoretical synchronic linguistics, which is acknowledged as the core of the discipline. Linguistic inquiry is pursued by a wide variety of specialists, who may not all be in harmonious agreement; 3
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