Victimology versus Criminology
- Victimology may be defined as the scientific study of the extent, nature
and causes of criminal victimisation, it’s consequences for the persons
involved and the reactions by society, in particular the police and CJS as
well as voluntary workers and preventing victimhood.
- Largely comprised of men until 70s – before it was thought if a woman
was raped it was precipitated by herself.
- Stream 1: Penal/interactionism – blames the victim.
- Stream 2: General/assistance-orientated – says that the status of the
victim is too readily claimed by persons suffering from minor problems,
and that it undermines personal responsibility (tries to reduce and
o Victims treated as participants of crime.
o Classified them according to their involvement.
o Interested in the participatory model.
o Interested in how victims precipitate crimes of violence (how they
o Always interested in constructing a situation of a victim where
they were responsible.
o Identified factors in victims that lead to a victim status.
o Coined a victim illogical notion.
o Interested in interaction Victimology.
o Interaction between offender and victim.
o They need reconciliation together.
o Coined the age of penal Victimology.
o Looked at social processes after engagement with the criminal law.
o Defined by the criminal law of the victim (talk about the victim
when they engage in it).
Contrasting ideological approaches/frameworks
Orthodox/Positivist Liberal/Left Realism
- Interested in a scientific method - Thought that more police,
– number of victims and how policies and penalties would
they experienced suffering on a create less victims.
scale. - Marxists, neo-Marxists and
- Created a victim typology – feminists.
victims and offenders are - Interested in street crime
distinct, separate groups. happening on a daily basis.
- Suggested there was a born - Questioned why people commit
victim, biological, determinism, crime.
measurement, individualising. - Interested in sub cultures.
- Responsibility was the victims’. - Victim is a class which people
are generally born into.
- Interested in marginalisation (when individuals lack groups
to represent their interests in
political life and that the
individuals themselves become
victims when they lack clearly