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Monash University
General Education Studies
James Roffee

Victimology versus Criminology History - Victimology may be defined as the scientific study of the extent, nature and causes of criminal victimisation, it’s consequences for the persons involved and the reactions by society, in particular the police and CJS as well as voluntary workers and preventing victimhood. - Largely comprised of men until 70s – before it was thought if a woman was raped it was precipitated by herself. - Stream 1: Penal/interactionism – blames the victim. - Stream 2: General/assistance-orientated – says that the status of the victim is too readily claimed by persons suffering from minor problems, and that it undermines personal responsibility (tries to reduce and prevent victimhood). - Hentig: o Victims treated as participants of crime. o Classified them according to their involvement. o Interested in the participatory model. - Mendelsohn: o Interested in how victims precipitate crimes of violence (how they became involved). o Always interested in constructing a situation of a victim where they were responsible. o Identified factors in victims that lead to a victim status. - Nagal: o Coined a victim illogical notion. o Interested in interaction Victimology. o Interaction between offender and victim. o They need reconciliation together. - Fattah: o Coined the age of penal Victimology. o Looked at social processes after engagement with the criminal law. o Defined by the criminal law of the victim (talk about the victim when they engage in it). Contrasting ideological approaches/frameworks Orthodox/Positivist Liberal/Left Realism - Interested in a scientific method - Thought that more police, – number of victims and how policies and penalties would they experienced suffering on a create less victims. scale. - Marxists, neo-Marxists and - Created a victim typology – feminists. victims and offenders are - Interested in street crime distinct, separate groups. happening on a daily basis. - Suggested there was a born - Questioned why people commit victim, biological, determinism, crime. measurement, individualising. - Interested in sub cultures. - Responsibility was the victims’. - Victim is a class which people are generally born into. - Interested in marginalisation (when individuals lack groups to represent their interests in political life and that the individuals themselves become victims when they lack clearly
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