6 Pages
Unlock Document

Monash University
General Education Studies
James Roffee

Blurring the distinction between offender and victim: youth and homelessness Victim status  Culturally, socially, political, temporally and historically defined. o Not static.  Social divisions and victimisation interconnected: o Experience of crime. o Recognition as victim. o Response to victimisation.  Significant divisions where power inequalities, marginalisation, social inclusion/exclusion can be mapped include sex, race and ethnicity, class, and age.  Non-normative lifestyles. Social construction  Age: o Categories of age are not natural or fixed. o Characteristics attributed to age categories are culturally produced and sustained. o Age-appropriate behaviour and identity, the „life course‟ has changed and continues to change. o Innocence – developing maturity - responsibility. Responsibility Infancy Adult Childhood Young adult Adolescence  Age, crime and responsibility: India 7 Iran 9 ♀15 ♂ Australia 10 UK 10 Canada 12 Japan 16 Denmark 15 International 18 Criminal Court Belgium 18 Defining and categorising youth  Childhood and youth as categories constitutive of diversity.  Yet there is a naturalistic tendency to regard them as a necessary and universal category.  An ill-defined and variable period of the life-span between infancy and adulthood.  People under the age of 25 Young people as offenders and victims  The study of youth victimisation emerged in the 1990s.  High levels of youth victimisation. o Serious:  Very young/female.  Sexual & physical abuse. o Less serious:  Adolescent/male.  Crime between peers.  Victimisation of young people tends to be under-reported. o Taken less seriously: „part of growing up‟.  Youth category often associated with the „problem of youth‟ where society seeks to control & disempower.  Hence, much victimisation is likely to remain hidden. The street as a home  The term „street children‟ refers to young people for whom the street more than their family has become their real home.  Suggested to include young people who might not necessarily be homeless or without families, but who live in situations without adequate protection, supervision, or direction from responsible adults.  Stigma from the street: o The public view of young (or any) people on the street is overwhelmingly negative in many countries. o The public has often supported efforts to get people off the street, even though they may result in police round ups. o Tendency by some law enforcement personnel and civilians, business proprietors and their private security firms, to view people living on the street as sub-human. o “Acts are not, they become. So also with crime. Crime does not exist. Crime is created. First there are acts. Then follows a long process of giving meaning to those acts”. Deviance  Destroys the credibility of the normative. o Conformity (cultural & social) and the family as normative behaviour & interactions.  Deviant behaviour & interactions & expectations. o Damages the expectations of cultural conformity. o Family as site of emotional life & learning. o Damages the character of the individuals. Street life as normative  Idealized, normative identity and conduct of street life provides another social milieu for the individual to achieve full acceptance by the population that he or she chooses to assimilate into.  Can employ „identifiers‟ to establish him/herself as „normal‟.  Loss of feelings of ambivalence and alienation emerge as a result of changing context of social intercourse. Vagrancy Act 1824  In recent years the number of homeless people sleeping out has risen, and the use of the Act has increased dramatically, especially in Greater London (Met Police).  In 1988, in England and Wales, some 573 people were prosecuted and convicted under the Act. In May 1990, the National Association of Probation Officers surveyed prosecutions in 14 Magistrates Courts in cent
More Less

Related notes for ATS2469

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.