Cognitive Psychology 1
Memory. Retention of info over time.
Memory illusion. False but subjectively compelling memory.
Sensory memory. Brief storage of perceptual info before it is passed to
Iconic memory. Visual sensory memory.
Echoic memory. Auditory sensory memory.
Short-term memory. Memory system that retains info for limited durations.
Decay. Fading of info from memory over time.
Interference. Loss of info from memory because of competition
from additional incoming info.
Retroactive interference. Interference with retention of old info due to
NEW – OLD. acquisition of new info.
Proactive interference. Interference with acquisition of new info due to
OLD – NEW. previous learning of info.
Magic number. The span of ST memory – 7+-2.
Chunking. Organising info into meaningful groupings, allowing
us to extend the span of ST memory.
Rehearsal. Repeating info to extend the duration of retention in
Maintenance rehearsal. Repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them
in ST memory.
Elaborative rehearsal. Linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way to
improve retention of info in ST memory.
Levels of processing. Depth of transforming info, which influences how
easily we remember it.
Long-term memory. Relatively enduring retention of info stored regarding
our facts, experiences and skills.
Permastore. Type of long-term memory that appears to be
Primacy effect. Tendency to remember words at the beginning of a
list especially well.
Recency effect. Tendency to remember words at the end of a list
Serial position curve. Graph depicting both primacy and recency effects on
people’s ability to recall items on a list.
Semantic memory. Our knowledge of facts about the world.
Episodic memory. Recollection of events in our lives.
Explicit memory. Memories we recall intentionally and of which we
have conscious awareness.
Implicit memory. Memories we don’t deliberately remember or reflect
Procedural memory. Memory for how to do things.
Priming. Our ability to identify a stimulus more easily/quickly
after we’re encountered similar stimuli.
Encoding. Process of getting info into our memory banks.
Mnemonic. Learning aid, strategy, or device that enhances recall. Storage. Process of keeping info in memory.
Schema. Organised knowledge structure/mental model that
we’ve stored in memory.
Retrieval. Reactivation/reconstruction of experiences from our
Retrieval cue. Hint that makes it easier for us to recall info.
Recall. Generating previously remembered info.
Recognition. Selecting previously remembered indo from an array
Relearning. Reacquiring knowledge that we’d previously learned
but largely forgotten over time.
Distributed vs. massed