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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Selection, Biodiversity, and Biosphere.docx

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BIOL 204
Dr.Roland Treu

CHAPTER 3 SELECTION BIODIVERSITY AND BIOSPHERE31 BiodiversityMeasured asof species reflects reality tht life on Earth exists from ocean floor to well into the atmosphereHierarchy of life Most plants are autotrophs which synthesize organic C mol using inorganic carbon COinorganic bc an 2oxide containing CAll animals are heterotrophs meaning they obtain C from organic mol either from living hosts or organic mol in productswastesremains of dead organismsOrganisms also divided according to source of energy they use to drive biological activitiesoChemotrophs obtain energy by oxidizing inorganicorganic substancesoPhototrophs obtain energy from light32 SelectionOccurs when some lethal forcephenomenon affects survival of indv organisms and only resistant indvs survive to reproduce n1Key factors selective force pressure and capacity for explosive pop growth2Ex overrun by pests such as antibioticresistant bacteria weeds in crop fields insect pests32a Case 1 Syphilis Migration and Emergence of a DiseaseCaused by Treponema pallidum pallidum syphilis aka the pox 1Small painless sores chancres at site of contact2Rash fever fatigue3If untreated disfigurement neurological Ds and CV problemsHistory appears to have involved 3 steps1T pallidum appeared as nonvenereal infection and spread w humans to Middle East Europe and the New World At that point pathogen caused yaws via skintoskin contact2European explorers brought strain from New World to Europe where it emerged as progenitor of modern T p p that caused syphilis 3Although strainssubspecies of T p tht caused yaws were thwarted by clothes variants that occurred in the genital area could be transferred during sex This meant success for the bacterium and syphilis resulted32b Case 2 Evolution of Whales A Change from Hoofed Mammal to WhalePresumption ancestor of whales lived a hippolike existence retreating to water to avoid predators and going ashore at night to eat vegetationoBut timing 50M whale fossils vs 15M yrs hippo fossils and location Africa meant hippo not close relative2007 Hans evidence of ungulate modern hoofed mammal ancestorindohyus
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