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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Energy and Enzymes.docx

7 Pages

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BIOL 204
Dr.Roland Treu

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CHAPTER 4 ENERGY AND ENZYMESnLife relies on group of catalysts enzymes tht speed up rates of reac wo need for i in tempowo life as we know it could not exist41Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamicsenergycapacity to do work41a Energy Exists in Different Forms and StatesFormsheat chem elec mech electromagnetic visible infrared UV lightoAlthough diff can be readily converted from one form to anotherKinetic energyenergy possessed by an object bc it is in motionoEg waves in ocean falling rock flow of electronsheat electricityPotential energystored energy energy object has bc of its locationchem structure41b The Laws of Thermodynamics Describe the Energy Flow in Natural SystemsThermodynamicsstudy of energy and its transformationsoSystemobject being studied can be anything sg molcellplanetoEverything outside system is called the surroundings and total is the universe3 types of systemsiIsolatedone tht dN exchange matterenergy w surroundings eg thermos bottleiiOpenboth energymatter can move freely btwn system and surroundings eg organismsiiiClosedcan exchange energy but not matter w its surroundings eg Earth41c The First Law of ThermodynamicsEnergy can be transformed from one form into another or transferred from one place to another but it cannot be createddestroyedAka principle of conservation of energyEx Niagara FallsoWater at top high pot energyoConverted to kinetic energy as it moves over waterfall highermore kinetic energy water possessesoAt bottom kinetic energy of water dissipated into various forms of potkinetic energy heat sound mechoEnergy converted into electricity t use of hydroelectric turbines to supply 1000s of homesbusinesses41d The Second Law of ThermodynamicsTotal disorder entropy of a system and its surroundings always increasesoEach time energy is transformed from one form into another some of the energy is lost and unavailable to do workEx runner converts only 40 of energy in glucose into ATP sig portion of energy unused and given off as heat which i disorder or entropy of surroundings Takes energy to main low entropyeg YOU have to do work to maintain cleanliness of your room41e Life and the Second Law of ThermodynamicsndOrder life lives by eg structure living cells make goes against 2 law things dont become more random in a living cell they become more orderedoHowliving cells not isolated but rather open systems exchanging energy and matter w surroundings used to maintain low entropy42 Free Energy and Spontaneous ReactionsnApplying both laws allows prediction of whether any chemphys reac will occur wo input of energyspontaneous reactionsnonote dN describe rate but simply whether reac will occur or not42a Energy Content and Entropy Contribute to Making a Reaction Spontaneous1Reactions tend to be spontaneous if the products have less potential energy than the reactantsEnthalpy aka Hpotential energy in a systemEndothermicreactions tht absorb energy products have more pot energy than reactants Exothermicprocesses tht release energy products have less pot energy than reactants
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