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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Cellular Respiration.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 204
Professor
Dr.Roland Treu
Semester
Spring

Description
CHAPTER 6 CELLULAR RESPIRATION61 The Chemical Basis of Cellular RespirationnsBy slowly oxidizing energyrich mol reac of cellular respiration CR extract pot energy and convert it into ATP Complete oxidation of food mol results in formation of CO released into env261a Food as FuelGlucose structure of abundance of carbonhydrogen bonds makes it a good source of energy bc CH bond can be easily removed greater pot energy since less energy reqd to remove61b The Principle of RedoxOxidation loss of electrons oMol afterward said to be oxidizedOxidation of mol linked to reduction reaction in which another mol gains electrons becomes reducedonote oxidation and reduction are coupled processes never have one wo otheronote OIL RIG ox is loss red is gainoGeneralized redox reaction can be written asnsTerm oxidation comes from fact tht many reac in which e are removed from fuel molecules involve oxygen as atom tht accepts eoInvolvement of oxygen essential for many commonplace oxidation reactionsNOTE1Although many involve oxygen many do not as welln2Gainloss of e in redox reac not always complete eg only degree of e sharing changes some released as heat energyMore electronegative an atom is the greater the force tht holds the e to that atom and TF greater the energy reqd to remove an e61c Cellular Respiration in Controlled CombustionGood way to think of CResp is controlled combustion in which energy of CH bonds not liberated suddenly producing heat but is slowly released in stepwise fashion w energy being transferred to other molIn CResp oxidation of food mol occurs in presence of dehydrogenases tht facilitate transfer of e from food to mol tht acts as energy carrier or shuttle most common coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADDuring respiration dehydrogenases remove 2 H atoms from substrate mol and transfer 2 e but only one of the protons to NAD resulting in its complete reduction to NADH other proton released62 Cellular Respiration An Overview62a The Three Parts of Cellular Respiration1Glycolysis enzymes break down mol of glucose into 2 mol of pyruvate some ATP and NADH synthesized2Citric acid cycle acetylCoA formed from oxidation of pyruvate enters metabolic cycle where completely oxidized to Co some ATP and NADH synthesized23Electron transport and chemiosmosis NADH synthesized by both glycolysis and CAC is oxidized w liberated es being passed along ETC until transferred to O producing water free energy released during 2e transport used to estbl proton gradient across mem and this in turn is what synthesizes remaining ATP Although all 3 stages req to extract max amnt of energy biologically possible from mol of glucose not all organismstissues possess all 3 stages62b The MitochondrionProkaryotes glycolysisCAC in cytosol of cell and e transport on int mem of PMEukaryotes CAC and e transport in mitochondrion63 Glycolysisns10 sequential enzymecatalyzed reac tht lead to oxidation of 6C cmpd pyruvatePot energy released in oxidation leads to overall synthesis of both NADH and ATP63a Glycolysis Is an Ancient PathwayUniversal in almost all organisms prokeukUnlike other stages dN req O since not abundant until approx 15B yrs after life developed2
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