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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Photosynthesis.docx

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Athabasca University
BIOL 204
Dr.Roland Treu

CHAPTER 7 PHOTOSYNTHESIS71 Photosynthesis An OverviewPhotosynthetic organisms are photoautotrophs and classified as primary producers of EarthoConvert energy of sunlight into chem energy and use it to assemble simple inorganic raw materials into complex organic mol71a The Two Parts of Photosynthesis1Lightdependent reactions aka light reactionsCapture of light energy by pigment mol and utilization of tht energy to synthesize both NADPH and ATPInvolves ETC tht in plants algae and cyanobacteria utilizes e donated from waterOxygen generated from splitting of water released to env as byproduct2HOlight energy4H 4 eO2 22Light independent reactions aka Calvin cycleE carried by NADPH and energy of ATP used to convert CO from inorganic to organic 2formCO fixation2oConversion is a reduction in which e and p are added to CO2oW added e and p converted to carb w C H and O in ratio 1C2H1OCOHeCHO22n3C sugars are mj direct product of Calvin cycle and can be readily combined to form 6C monosacc including glucosennCombining two reac overall balanced eq for photosynthesis is 6CO12HOCHO6O6HO22612622While sugar glucose is mj product of photosynthesis reduced carbon produced by photosynthesis also source of carbon backbone for huge range of other mol lipidsproteins71b In Eukaryotes Photosynthesis Takes Place in ChloroplastsChloroplast formed from 3 membranes tht define 3 distinct compartmentsoOuter membraneoInner membraneoIntermembrane compartmentStromaaqueous env win inner membraneowin third membrane systemthylakoid membranes form flattened closed sacsnsHouses mol tht carry out light reac of photoS pigments e transfer carriers ATP synthase enzymes for ATP productionoThylakoid lumenencloses thylakoidnsHouses enzymes tht catalyze reac of Calvin cycleCells lacking chloroplasts may still be photosyntheticoThylakoid membranes formed from infoldings of plasma membrane72 The Photosynthetic Apparatus72A Electrons in Pigment Molecules Absorb Light EnergyRecall1The absorption of a photon by a pigment mol excites a single e moving it from the ground state to an excited state2The difference in energy level btwn the ground state and the excited state is equivalent to the energy of the photon of light that was absorbed If the energies do not match the photon is not absorbed by the pigmentFollowing light absorption 3 possible fates of energy possessed by excitedstate e win pigment moloRelative probabilities of each event taking place depends on env surrounding pigment molecules including presence of other molnd2 fate inductive resonance req 2 mol to be very closely and precisely aligned w one another
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