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CHEM 1F92 (17)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11.docx

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Brock University
Lydia W.L.Chen

Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids111The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquids and SolidsIn gases the molecules are very far apart from one another due to very weak or no forces of attraction between themoDue to the large amount of empty space in a gas they can be easily compressedoDue to weak forces between the molecules gas molecules can break these forces and move away from one another to take the volume and shape of its containeroDue to the large amount of empty space gases have very low densitiesIn a liquid the molecules are very close to one another due to stronger forces of attraction resulting in very little empty spaceoDue to a very small amount of empty space liquids are only slightly compressibleoDue to strong attractive forces between the molecules the molecules cannot separate from one another to take the volume of its containeroLiquid molecules can slide past one another to take the shape of their containerIn a solid there are very strong forces of attraction between the molecules and extremely little empty space Also in a solid the molecules are arranged in regular configurations in 3 dimensionsoDue to very little empty space and strong attractive forces solids are incompressible and do not take the shape or volume of their containerThe density of a substance is usually greater in solid phase than in liquid phasePhases are the states of the substances in a system ie solid liquid gasIn a system two phases of the same substance can coexist ie ice cubes in liquid water112Intermolecular ForcesIntermolecular forces are responsible for the nonideal behaviour of gases However they have a greater effect on substances in the liquid and solid statesoWhen the temperature of a gas decreases the K of the gas molecules decreases This causes avggas molecules to move slowly and eventually clump together to form small drops of a liquidoThis transition from gaseous state to liquid state is called condensationvan der Waals forces can be categorized as intermolecular forces They include dipoledipole Hbonding dipoleinduced dipole and induced dipoleinduced dipole Londondispersion forcesoHbonding is a strong type of dipoledipole force of attractionoVan der Waals forces are NOT the only types of intermolecular forcesDipoleDipole ForcesDipoledipole forces are attractive forces between polar molecules In a polar substance the molecules align in a way that maximizes the attractive interaction between these polar moleculesIonDipole ForcesCations interact more strongly with dipoles than anions with a charge of the same magnitude oSince cations are smaller than anions their charge density is greater than that of anionsThe heat of hydration is the amount of energy released when one mole of ions get hydratedoThe stronger the iondipole forces of attraction between HO and the ion the greater the 2magnitude of the heat of hydration
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