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CHYS 2P51 (1)
Chapter 4

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Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
Jan Frijters

Chapter 4, Ethics in Research, September 19 - when other people begin to get involved in the research process (participants, and the people who will be influenced by the study if they read it) the researchers needs to consider ethical issues - Research Ethics: responsibility of the researchers is to be honest and respectful of the participants and those who may be influenced by the report results – these principles dictate: o 1) what measurement techniques can be used and when o 2) how participants are selected for the study o 3) which research strategies may be used o 4) which research designs may be used o 5) how the studies are carried out o 6) how the data is analyzed o 7) how the results are reported o All these steps differ through the types of participants and their behaviour, as well as what is being studied. - Two categories of ethical responsibility o 1) ensuring the welfare and dignity (of participants: human or not) o 2) ensuring public records of research are accurate and honest - Human Participants o Before WW2 the ethical standards were set by each researcher o Historical Examples (p. 110) - Nuremberg Code (p.111) o 1) voluntary consent, free power of choice, have sufficient knowledge, purpose, methods, any inconveniences or hazards ect. o 2) study should produce results “for the good of society) o 3) should be based on animal experimentation, and knowledge of history of the problem being studied o 4) designed to avoid all unnecessary mental or physical suffering o 5) should never result in death or disabling injury o 6) the degree of risk shouldn't outweigh the possible importance of the problem going to be solved o 7) proper preparations and facilities provided to protect participants o 8) conducted only by specialized persons – highest degree of skill and care required o 9) participant should be able to end experiment whenever they choose to o 10) should be prepared to terminate the experiment if it shows to be in any way unethical - The Belmont Report o 1) consent to participate, and those who cannot give consent (children, prisoners, disabled) need to be protected o 2) researcher must not harm the participants, minimize risks, and maximize possible benefits o 3) fairness in procedures for selecting participants - APA Guidelines (p.114-116) o Guidelines because it is impossible to predict every type of study being done in the future – they intend to identify o contains 10 ethical standards - the most important for new researchers are: - 1. No Harm: - protect participants from physical and psychological harm - clinical equipoise – “the basic concept is that clinicians have an ethical responsibility to provide the best possible treatment for their patients” – comparing the treatments so that the patient is only getting the best care o either there is honest uncertainty between which is best, or there is honest professional disagreement among experts on which is best - 6. Informed Consent: - human participants should be given complete information about the research and their roles in it before agreeing to participate - 1. Information: to not risk sabotaging the experiment, researchers may tell the participant what is exactly going to happen in the study, but not why o are informed of any potential risks though - 2. Understanding: the researcher must make sure the participant understands what is the is going to happen, it is not good enough for them just to “know” o especially important with vulnerable populations - 3. Voluntary Participation: once they are informed, they should be able to “decide to participate” using their “own free will” o also important for vulnerable populations, often they feel like they must participate – when are empowered to say no - consent form – most research experiments use a form to verify consent, but it varies study to study (some studies it is possible to use verbal consent) - Components of Informed Consent (p. 119) - to obtain results under “real” or “normal” circumstances, sometimes deception is used so that the participant does not change their behaviour because they know they are being studied o passive deception (omission) – withhold information about the study o active deception (commission) – deliberately presenting false or misleading information o confederates – giving the participant false feedback, or creating a false environment o Examples: Craik and Lockhart (1972), Asch (1956), Kassin and Kiechel (1996) p. 120 - Deception must be justified, must not conceal any physical/ mental harm, the participant must receive all the information ASAP o Debriefing after deception can sometimes cause embarrassment, or create suspicion – but nonetheless, participants still deserve a complete explanation (p. 122) o the placebo effect is an example - 2. Confidentiality - ensures that none of the information collected will be revealed – it will stay secret and private o different types of information: attitudes and opinions; measures of performance, demographic characteristics o ensuring the data remains confidential (p. 124): no names or identification appear in the records; coding system to keep track of participants o any unique characteristics of participants is eliminated to reduce the risk of identification - Institutional Review Board – created by each institution or agency to review the research report done – researcher is still ultimately responsible for the protection of human participation (p. 125) - Non-Human Subjects - Animals are used (1) understanding animals for their benefit, (2) understanding humans (because the research can us
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