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ENTR 3P99 (5)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10

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Dirk De Clercq

CHAPTER 10 HYPOTHESIS INFORMATION TYPES OF ERROR AND ESTIMATIONWhat is a hypothesisA proposition tentative assumption or educated conjecture about some aspect of the world around us that is testableUsually derived from theoretical framework in quantitative approachWhy use hypothesesIf research were limited to gathering facts knowledge wouldhardly advance We need to determine what is relevant and what is notHypothesis testing distinguishes scientific reasoning from everyday speculation and old wives tales Hypothesis Testing An inferential procedure that uses sample data to evaluate the validity of a hypothesis about apopulation That ishypotheses relate to populations but we usually test them with samplesSequence in Hypothesis Testing Scientific thinking possesses three essential steps 1 The proposal of a hypothesis to account for a phenomenon 2 The deduction from the hypothesis that certain phenomena should be observed in given circumstances3 The checking of this deduction by observation and testingStating the Hypothesis Hypotheses may be stated in the form of proposed relationships associations or in terms of differences comparisons A relationship hypothesis would exist if we propose that changes in demand for a specified good are related to changes in price of the same good A difference hypothesis is that female employees take more sick days than male employeesStatistical Tests Associated with the Two Types of Hypotheses Relationship hypotheses use statistical tests of correlation or association and regression when prediction is involved Difference hypotheses use statistical tests of differencesCriteria for Judging Hypotheses Hypotheses should be clear and precise Hypotheses should be testable with operationalized variables Hypotheses should state expected relationships between variables explicitlyHypotheses should be limited in scopeHypotheses should be grounded in past knowledge or reasonably consistent with known facts Logic of Hypothesis TestingWe set up two competing statements or hypotheses the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis These hypotheses are mutually exclusive and exhaustive How do we test or compare these competing hypothesesThis is the counterintuitive part We try to disprove the Null HypothesisThe Null and Alternative Hypothesis The Null Hypothesissymbolized as H o H The finding was simply a chance random occurrencenothing really occurred o
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